Question 1Most scholars believe Mark was the first ofthe Gospels to be written. This Gospel was written around 70 AD after the fallof Jerusalem and the destruction of the second temple. It is generally believedthat Mark the Evangelist, a companion of St. Paul, was probably the writer.Mark includes the baptism of Jesus by John the Baptist.Question 2The Gospel of Matthew, most historicalscholars will agree, was the second Gospel written.

This Gospel was probablywritten around 70 to 80 years after Mark. This book was probably written to a gentile based Christian congregationliving near Antioch. Matthew is the second of the three synoptic gospels. Question 3Most historical scholars are in agreement thatLuke and the Acts of Apostles have the same author. It is believed that Lukewas a doctor and traveled through the eastern Roman Empire with St. Paul.

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  This Gospel was probably written shortlyafter Matthew, around 150 C.E., but the writer of Matthew had little to noinfluence on Luke.  Luke borrowed heavilyfrom Mark and filled all his story gaps with educated conclusions.

WhileMatthew treated Jesus as the new Moses, leader of the Jews, Luke went toanother level. Luke treated Jesus as if he were the new Adam, father of allhumanity. Question 4Scholarly consensus is that the Gospel of theJohn is the fourth Gospel. This Gospel was general attributed to John theApostle, one of Jesus Christ’s Twelve Apostles.

Some scholars believe that thesame writer wrote the Book of Revelation. It was probably written near Jerusalem. Some scholars argue that this book must have been written near the timeof Mark, because of no mention of the destroyed second temple. The essence ofthe Gospel of John is the Jesus is the Son of God, the messiah for eternity.  Question 51.    Describe/Demonstrate whyscholars frequently identify a concern for outcast and marginalized people asone of the dominant characteristics of Luke- Luke is a book with aneye on its gentile audience. Jesus of Nazareth is above all at the right handof God in the Gospel according to Luke. Luke is very strong in his methodology and incluse of other authors.

Jesus is very focused on sinners or those who were “marginalized, poor, castout, orphaned, diseased, or widowed”. Jesus not only promises salvation to suchsinners, but goes so far as to call their poverty itself “blessed” throughoutthe Gospels. At many points in Jesus’s ministry, he shocks mainstream Jews byassociating with, ministering to, and healing people who are cast out, poor,and sick. Some have argued that a prominent theme in the Gospels is Jesus’sgood news to such people and an invitation to the rich to join them Question 6Summarize Raymond Brown’s highly influentialreconstruction of the Johannine Community behind the Gospel of John.  Question 7Comparethe treatment of the resurrection in Matthew with that in Mark. Matthew was written primarily to Jews.

As such it contains many more OldTestament references. Mark was probably written to the Roman world andtakes on a much more pragmatic view of Jesus’ ministry, emphasizing His worksand miracles. Some have said Matthew is the Gospel of theJesus the King, whereas Mark is the Gospel of Jesus the Servant.Question 8What isthe significance of Thomas’s post-resurrection encounter with Jesus in John20:24-29?Thomas’ response to the information/witness offered by the otherdisciples, includes in an emphatic way the very same verb of sight: “Unless Isee in his hands the print of the nails … I will not believe” (John. 20:25).

Thomas without “explicitly dismissing out of hand the other disciples’confession,” refuses, nonetheless, to believe that Jesus is risen, unless hesees him with his own eyes. The condition imposed by Thomas is clear andabsolute: personal verification by sight, direct access by eye contact andnothing less. Thomas even intensifies his terms by adding the need notonly to see but also to touch Jesus at the very marks of his crucifixion:”Unless I see in his hands the print of the nails, and place my finger in themark of the nails, and place my hand in his side, I will not believe” (John20:25) The Appearance of the RisenChrist to ThomasThe event occurred eight days after the appearance ofJesus to the other disciples. As they were gathered in the house, behind closeddoors, the risen Christ came and stood among them (John20:27).

This time Thomas was with them. Jesus, after greeting them with thetraditional, “Peace be with you,” without any delay turns to Thomas andaddresses him: “Put your finger here, and see my hands; and put out your handand place it in my side, and do not be unbelieving but believing” (John.20:27). Obviously, Jesus accepts the challenge, if not the provocation, ofThomas and invites him to proceed with the demanded test. The unbelievingdisciple already sees Christ, but he is now asked to complete the test byadding the touching of the hands and of the side.He does not, however, complete the test with a giant stephe moves from the state of unbelieving to the state of believing. Suddenly heis convinced that the one whom he sees, is the risen Lord, the very same Jesuswhom he knew, after having been with him for three years. Unhesitatingly,without any other words, explanations or apologies, he responds with anastonishing confession of faith: “Thomas answered him, ‘My Lord and my God'” (John20:28).

This declaration of faith is unique. No other disciple in the Gospelnarratives has used such an advanced creedal formula for expressing his faithin Christ who is now called Lord and God. Question 9SummarizeRudolph Bultmann’s existentialist interpretation of the Gospel of John.

Jesus is a walking oracle. He is alwaystossing out prophecies, many of which actually come true in the course of thenarrative. He speaks in poetic parables. We’re probably supposed to think thatseveral others will be fulfilled beyond the story’s end in 16:8, too (forexample, 13:1-37 and 14:28). In some cases, these prophetic words have theirsource in the scriptures (9:12; 14:21, 27), which are read as authoritativeguides for the future (1:2-3).


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