BUREAUCRACY: INDIA AND PAKISTAN
IS THE DEATH OF ALL SOUND WORK’ – ALBERT EINSTEIN
to Merriam Webster’s dictionary, bureaucracy is defined as ‘a system of
administration marked by officialism, red tape, and proliferation’. It is
derived from bureau and cracy which mean a desk and a cloth to cover the desk’.
A bureaucracy is a way of administratively organizing large numbers of people
who need to work together. Organizations in the public and private sector,
including universities and governments, rely on bureaucracies to function. Even
though bureaucracies sometimes seem inefficient or wasteful, setting up a
bureaucracy helps ensure that thousands of people work together in compatible
ways by defining everyone’s roles within a hierarchy.
· MERIT BUREAUCRACY
Webber is well known for his theory of bureaucracy. Weber’s theory of
bureaucracy has been given many names over the years such as, ideal
bureaucracy, rational bureaucracy, weberian bureaucracy and democratic
bureaucracy as the theory addresses the different types of bureaucracy in one
principles of bureaucracy – although are usually frowned upon for being
cumbersome and leading to ‘red-tapism’ – are found virtually in every formal organization
today. Weber’s ideal bureaucracy was designed to eradicate inefficiency and
waste from organizations. His basic principles for a bureaucratic organization
Bureaucrats specialize in an area that their agency covers. This allows for
efficiency because the specialist does what he or she knows best.
2. Hierarchy: A bureaucracy is set up with a clear chain of
command so that everyone has a boss. At the top of the organisation is a chief
who oversees the entire bureaucracy. Power flows downward and is decentralised.
3. Formal Selection:
All employees are to be selected upon the basis of the technical knowledge and
competence that they display through formal examination, training or education.
4. Formal Rules and Regulations:
A standard operating procedure informs workers about how to handle tasks and
situations. The same procedures are followed to increase efficiency and
predictability so that the organisation will produce similar results in similar
· INDIA AND MERIT BUREAUCRACY
Closely related to
bureaucracy is the concept of authority and institutions. Rational-legal
institutions are those institutions in which the authority of the institutions
is tied to its legal legitimacy and legal rationality. This concept of
rational-legal institutions comes from the Weber’s tripartite classification of
authority. The best example of this kind of institution is a political or
economic bureaucracy. This type of authority is often found in the modern
state, city governments, private and public corporations and various voluntary
associations. For example, the Indian Government is a rational-legal system.
The Indian Constitution defines the structure and powers of the government and
serves as the pattern of rules that Weber says gives a legal-rational system of
government legitimacy. In this rational-legal institution one can see Weber’s principles
of bureaucracy at play. There is hierarchy, formal selection, specialisation,
formal rules and regulations, impersonality, and career orientation in the
structure of the Indian state.
· PAKISTAN AND MERIT BUREAUCRACY
to Max Weber, these bureaucratic elements can be taken and applied as solutions
and guidelines for the problems or defects existing within earlier and more
traditional administrative systems in Pakistan. These elements if viewed and
applied aptly, can contribute as a part of the whole system that by combining
and instituting effectively, can increase the effectiveness and efficiency of
the administrative structure.
bureaucratic structure can to a greater extent protect employees in Pakistan from
arbitrary rulings from leaders, and can potentially give a greater sense of
security to the employees.
the bureaucratic structure can create an opportunity for employees to become
specialists within one specific area, which would increase the effectiveness
and efficiency in each area of the organisation.
when rules for performance are relatively stable, employees will be having a
greater possibility to act creatively within the realm of their respective
duties and sub-tasks, and to find creative ways to accomplish rather stable
goals and targets.
(n.d.). Retrieved December 1, 2017, from https://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/bureaucracy
D. (1982). Max Weber on India and Indian interpretations of Weber.
Contributions to Indian Sociology, 16(2), 141-174.
· PLAGIARISM REPORT