PUBLIC ADMINSTRATIONWEBERIANBUREAUCRACY: INDIA AND PAKISTAN’BUERAUCRACYIS THE DEATH OF ALL SOUND WORK’ – ALBERT EINSTEIN· INTRODUCTIONAccordingto Merriam Webster’s dictionary, bureaucracy is defined as ‘a system ofadministration marked by officialism, red tape, and proliferation’. It isderived from bureau and cracy which mean a desk and a cloth to cover the desk’.A bureaucracy is a way of administratively organizing large numbers of peoplewho need to work together.
Organizations in the public and private sector,including universities and governments, rely on bureaucracies to function. Eventhough bureaucracies sometimes seem inefficient or wasteful, setting up abureaucracy helps ensure that thousands of people work together in compatibleways by defining everyone’s roles within a hierarchy.· MERIT BUREAUCRACYMaxWebber is well known for his theory of bureaucracy. Weber’s theory ofbureaucracy has been given many names over the years such as, idealbureaucracy, rational bureaucracy, weberian bureaucracy and democraticbureaucracy as the theory addresses the different types of bureaucracy in onetheory.Theprinciples of bureaucracy – although are usually frowned upon for beingcumbersome and leading to ‘red-tapism’ – are found virtually in every formal organizationtoday. Weber’s ideal bureaucracy was designed to eradicate inefficiency andwaste from organizations.
His basic principles for a bureaucratic organizationare: 1. Specialisation:Bureaucrats specialize in an area that their agency covers. This allows forefficiency because the specialist does what he or she knows best.2.
Hierarchy: A bureaucracy is set up with a clear chain ofcommand so that everyone has a boss. At the top of the organisation is a chiefwho oversees the entire bureaucracy. Power flows downward and is decentralised.3. Formal Selection:All employees are to be selected upon the basis of the technical knowledge andcompetence that they display through formal examination, training or education.4. Formal Rules and Regulations:A standard operating procedure informs workers about how to handle tasks andsituations.
The same procedures are followed to increase efficiency andpredictability so that the organisation will produce similar results in similarcircumstances. · INDIA AND MERIT BUREAUCRACYClosely related tobureaucracy is the concept of authority and institutions. Rational-legalinstitutions are those institutions in which the authority of the institutionsis tied to its legal legitimacy and legal rationality. This concept ofrational-legal institutions comes from the Weber’s tripartite classification ofauthority. The best example of this kind of institution is a political oreconomic bureaucracy. This type of authority is often found in the modernstate, city governments, private and public corporations and various voluntaryassociations. For example, the Indian Government is a rational-legal system.
The Indian Constitution defines the structure and powers of the government andserves as the pattern of rules that Weber says gives a legal-rational system ofgovernment legitimacy. In this rational-legal institution one can see Weber’s principlesof bureaucracy at play. There is hierarchy, formal selection, specialisation,formal rules and regulations, impersonality, and career orientation in thestructure of the Indian state. · PAKISTAN AND MERIT BUREAUCRACYAccordingto Max Weber, these bureaucratic elements can be taken and applied as solutionsand guidelines for the problems or defects existing within earlier and moretraditional administrative systems in Pakistan. These elements if viewed andapplied aptly, can contribute as a part of the whole system that by combiningand instituting effectively, can increase the effectiveness and efficiency ofthe administrative structure.Thisbureaucratic structure can to a greater extent protect employees in Pakistan fromarbitrary rulings from leaders, and can potentially give a greater sense ofsecurity to the employees.Additionally,the bureaucratic structure can create an opportunity for employees to becomespecialists within one specific area, which would increase the effectivenessand efficiency in each area of the organisation.Finally,when rules for performance are relatively stable, employees will be having agreater possibility to act creatively within the realm of their respectiveduties and sub-tasks, and to find creative ways to accomplish rather stablegoals and targets.
· REFERENCES1. Bureaucracy.(n.d.).
Retrieved December 1, 2017, from https://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/bureaucracy2.
Kantowsky,D. (1982). Max Weber on India and Indian interpretations of Weber.Contributions to Indian Sociology, 16(2), 141-174.3. http://jworldtimes.com/jwt2015/magazine-archives/jwt2012/nov2012/max-webers-theory-of-bureaucracy/ · PLAGIARISM REPORT