Prostate cancer is a huge and wide area which is
still under research and investigation. There was a research elucidated that
the basal cells, possesses high proliferative activities preferably to have
malignant transformation (Bonkhoff and Remberger, 1996). Stem cell model for
prostate cancer pathogenesis was suggested whereby this postulated the presence
of androgen-independent stem cell population (Bonkhoff and Remberger, 1996) within
the compartment of basal cells which this kind of stem cell population is the
main reason to cause prostate cancer. The differentiation of the proliferating
cells into secretory luminal cells and neuroendocrine cells (Bonkhoff and
Remberger, 1996) promote the formation of cell lineages can be seen in prostate
cancer. Another hypothesis was proposed that the luminal epithelial cells are
the origin of the prostate cancer based on the absence of basal cell
compartment in prostate adenocarcinomas and most of the prostate tumour cells
can express androgen-receptor (AR), prostate acid phosphate (PAP) and prostate
specific antigen (PSA). Then, luminal cells are able to conduct self-renewing
under certain situation (Van Der Kwast et
al., 1998).  For prostate cancer
development, oncogenic events are the aspects of interest as independent
genetic aberrations whereby is critical for the gradual progression from benign
gland to malignant tumours. The stages that involved in the prostate cancer
progression are pre-malignant, locally confined, infiltrating, metastatic and
hormone-refractory diseases.

            There
is another stage that can be found in the prostate cancer patients which are
high-grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PIN). This involves the
formation of lesion and always appeared for those suffered from prostate
cancer. For instance, PIN always can be observed in those men who reached 50 years
old whereby the age is one of the factors that might contribute to prostate
cancer. Next, when the age increases, PIN will be higher chance to be seen in
elderly men. Moreover, high-grade PIN displays various changes in terms of
morphological and genetic and it is often characterized by cellular
proliferation inside the prostatic ducts and increased in cytoplasmatic
density.

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            Prostate
cancer can be grow aggressively, surrounds the pelvic region and spread to
whole body. However, some type of prostate cancer can be developed gradually
and end up as more severe situation like enlargement in prostate gland and so
on. When having prostate cancer, medical examination has to be done before any
treatment suggested or advised by doctors. The regular check-up has to be
followed as to evaluate the rate of growth and spreading of the prostate
cancerous cells and to provide the best solution for the treatment on it. 

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