Prostate cancer is a huge and wide area which isstill under research and investigation. There was a research elucidated thatthe basal cells, possesses high proliferative activities preferably to havemalignant transformation (Bonkhoff and Remberger, 1996). Stem cell model forprostate cancer pathogenesis was suggested whereby this postulated the presenceof androgen-independent stem cell population (Bonkhoff and Remberger, 1996) withinthe compartment of basal cells which this kind of stem cell population is themain reason to cause prostate cancer. The differentiation of the proliferatingcells into secretory luminal cells and neuroendocrine cells (Bonkhoff andRemberger, 1996) promote the formation of cell lineages can be seen in prostatecancer.
Another hypothesis was proposed that the luminal epithelial cells arethe origin of the prostate cancer based on the absence of basal cellcompartment in prostate adenocarcinomas and most of the prostate tumour cellscan express androgen-receptor (AR), prostate acid phosphate (PAP) and prostatespecific antigen (PSA). Then, luminal cells are able to conduct self-renewingunder certain situation (Van Der Kwast etal., 1998). For prostate cancerdevelopment, oncogenic events are the aspects of interest as independentgenetic aberrations whereby is critical for the gradual progression from benigngland to malignant tumours. The stages that involved in the prostate cancerprogression are pre-malignant, locally confined, infiltrating, metastatic andhormone-refractory diseases. Thereis another stage that can be found in the prostate cancer patients which arehigh-grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PIN).
This involves theformation of lesion and always appeared for those suffered from prostatecancer. For instance, PIN always can be observed in those men who reached 50 yearsold whereby the age is one of the factors that might contribute to prostatecancer. Next, when the age increases, PIN will be higher chance to be seen inelderly men. Moreover, high-grade PIN displays various changes in terms ofmorphological and genetic and it is often characterized by cellularproliferation inside the prostatic ducts and increased in cytoplasmaticdensity. Prostatecancer can be grow aggressively, surrounds the pelvic region and spread towhole body. However, some type of prostate cancer can be developed graduallyand end up as more severe situation like enlargement in prostate gland and soon.
When having prostate cancer, medical examination has to be done before anytreatment suggested or advised by doctors. The regular check-up has to befollowed as to evaluate the rate of growth and spreading of the prostatecancerous cells and to provide the best solution for the treatment on it.