PROPOSED STUDY FIELD AND/OR PROPOSED TITLE Effect of Temperature and Storage on Vitamin C content in Fruits Juice AIM AND OBJECTIVES Aim of research study To test the concentration of vitamin C in different types of juice and fresh fruits. Objectives of research study to set out a hypothesis about the vitamin C content of the juice you are testing to measure the vitamin C content of different juices; to consider the reliability and validity of the results; to evaluate the original hypothesis in the light of the result; and to consider how to improve the procedure.   PROBLEM STATEMENT OR HYPOTHESIS AND RESULTS EXPECTED Fruit juices are liquid naturally contained in fruit or vegetable tissues. The labels of fruit juice package may be misleading as companies may underestimate or overestimate the actual content.

Thus, the problem is that consumers do not know the actual amount of vitamin C in the commercial fruit juices, unless the amount of vitamin C is stated on the label of the package.  Some people think they are receiving same concentration of vitamin C in any type of fruits, even commercial fruit juices, or fresh fruit juices.   However, the commercial fruit juice is typically designed to appeal to the taste preferences of the market, and will therefore contain different flavor packs or chemicals depending on where it will eventually end up. Commercial fruit juice has already combined with oxygen, undergoes oxidation and all the nutrients have been destroyed. It also has artificial, including often a huge amount of added sugar. However, fresh fruit juice has a shelf life of sometimes more than a day, and has hundreds of times of nutrients, enzymes, and phytochemicals.

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As such I hypothesize that all the fresh fruits and fresh juices will have vitamin C than the processed juices or concentrates.   Thus, this study is carried out to determine concentration of vitamin C content in three commercial fruit juices chosen, that are apple, orange and mango by using titration and DSPIC methods. At the same time, identifying the highest and the lowest vitamin C concentration in commercial fruits juices as well as differentiate the concentration of vitamin C concentration between commercial fruit juices and fresh fruit juices.

Furthermore, comparing the state of the vitamin C stored both at room temperature and the refrigerator.   JUSTIFICATION OF STUDY WITH REFERENCE TO RELEVANT AND RECENT LITERATURE (Contextualise the study in terms of the broader field and literature, including preliminary research conducted), ending with the anticipated contribution of the proposed study) Since humans cannot synthesis ascorbate, their main source of the vitamin is dietary fruit and vegetables. Fruits (especially citrus and some tropical) are the best sources of this vitamin. An accurate and specific determination of the nutrients content of fruits is extremely important to understand the relationship of dietary intake and human health.   Unfortunately, vitamin C cannot be synthesized by the human body and must be consumed regularly. Moreover, fruits contain large amount of potentially interfering compounds. For these reasons great caution should be exercised in the employment of methods that have been developed for the analysis of specific plant tissue types (Davey et al, 2000).   The purpose of the experiment is to compare the vitamin C concentrations of carton, plastic, frozen and freshly squeezed natural and commercially available juice.

There has been a great amount of studies on vitamin C because it is considered to play crucial roles in human health. Certain quantities of ascorbic acid are required by the immune system for healing the body, metabolizing carbohydrates, and resisting infections (Gritsanapun et al 2002).   Vitamins are complex organic molecules required in small amount by the body in order to maintain health and well- being.

Generally, the daily requirements of the various vitamins are very small quantities, but whenever these small quantities are not available, the body cannot function properly. Vitamin C is important for the human body because it helps the body to absorb iron, helps wounds to heal, helps red blood cell formation and helps to fight infections. For example. A lack of vitamin C can cause a disease called scurvy, iron deficiency and poor wound healing (Levine 1986).   STUDY METHODOLOGY: (TECHNIQUES TO BE USED, ASPECTS TO BE INVESTIGATED, ETC.)   A laboratory test will be undertaken to examine the amount of Vitamin C content in different kinds of fruits, both packed and fresh juices. Different temperature settings will also be considered as part of the experiment to understand the effect.   The laboratory research will use a natural and packed fruit juices, ascorbic acid, distilled water, and 2, 6-dichloropheolindophenol (DCPIP) solution.

The apparatus in the research will include a titration set (such as Burette, stand, clamp, tile and funnel), 250 ml Conical Flask, Buchner Funnel and Filter paper, Measuring cylinder, beaker, and a knife.   A titration method will be used to determine the concentration of vitamin C in freshly prepared and commercial fruit juice samples. Titration or called as volumetric analysis is a common laboratory method of quantitative analysis that can be used to determine the concentration of a known analyte. A titrant of known concentration is used to react with a solution of the analyte of unknown concentration. Using a calibrated burette, it is possible to determine the exact amount of titrant that has been consumed when the endpoint is reached. The endpoint is the point at which the titration is complete, as determined by the colour change of an indicator. REFERENCES: (Refer only to cited literature used in this proposal and provide at least three appropriate references to be referenced in full) El-Ishaq, Abubakar (2015).

The Effect of Temperature and Storage on Vitamin C content in Fruits Juice.  file:///C:/Users/asmetesfay32/Downloads/70420002.pdf   Hernandez. Y, Lobo. M, Gonzalez.

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(2012).   Vasanth Kumar. G, Ajay Kumar K., Raghu Patel G.

R., Manjappa S., ( 2013). Determination of Vitamin C in some fruits and vegetables in Davanagere city, (Karanataka)- India.

pdf   Gummersheimer L., (2016). The comparison of vitamin C content in commercially available sources of orange juice using HPLC.

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F., Kalinowski S., (2008). Ascorbic Acid Determination in Commercial Fruit Juice Samples by Cyclic Voltammetry.   Ivy Iris (2018).

Anaisis of Concentration of Vitamin C in commercial and Fresh Fruit Juices by Titration method (DCPIP Titration).   Mussa S.B.

, Sharaa I., (2014). Analysis of Vitamin C (ascorbic acid) Contents packed fruit juice by UV- spectrophotometry and Redox Titration Methods.

ly/assets/uploads/pagedownloads/d66b3-analysis-of-vitamin-c-ascorbic-acid-contents-packed-fruit-juice-by-uv-spectrophotometry-and-redox-titration-methods.pdf   Kouhanestani M.B., Salehi M., Mazloomi A.

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Quantitative evaluation of vitamin C in industrial lemon juice by titration method.   Helmenstine A.M., (2017). Vitamin C Determination by Iodine.                            


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