Procrastination has influenced many fields of behavioral activities yet it mostly occurs in the form of academic procrastination (Khan, Arif, Noor, & Muneer, 2014). Many studies showed that procrastination has been a dominant state for students especially the undergraduates since ages ago and around 50% of college students were reported to procrastinate in a systematically problematic manner (Day, ensink, & O’Sullivan, 2000) which agreed to the previous research of Beswick, Rothblum, and Mann (1988), that also showed the same figure of 50% undergraduate procrastinators. According to Khan et al. (2014), academic procrastination does not only interfere with the personality factors of single individual and academic achievement but also influence individual psychological well-being.Procrastination, as stated by Beswick et al (1988), is a kind of harmful tendency that causing study, career and personal life difficultness.
Furthermore, academic procrastinators may suffer psychological stress from the pressure of meeting deadlines and undergo the state of embarrassment of failure and criticism for not able to complete simple work on time. According to Janis et al’s conflict theory of decision making considers procrastination as a main “coping pattern” for handling with dilemma decisions; thereby it includes fatal decisional conflict coupled with pessimism about finding a suitable solution to the problem. For instance, the student who procrastinates habitually may found oneself drown deeply in dilemma for he or she cannot decide whether to carry on the task or to prolong it. In other cases, student may even put off the already started assignment for one may find it hard to choose a topic or to find the task requirements or materials (as cited in Beswick, Rothblum, & Mann, 1988). Moreover, Ellis and Knaus also found the relation of emotional disturbance stemming from irrational thoughts in regard of procrastination.
Accounted to them, the irrational belief like “I must do well” just so as to show that “I am worthwhile person” also act as an influence to defer starting and completing work. Then student will be demotivated when the outcome does not meet his or her expectation and he or she will begin to reason, “This assignment will only confirm my inadequacy as a person.” Again, that student is likely to postpone his or her task as well as avoid putting his or her self-esteem on the line again (as cited in Beswick et al., 1977).
Likewise, when one start to have low self-esteem it will become fragile and this personality trait often found in academic procrastinators (Burka, & Yuen, 1983). In sum, procrastination enable student to deal with conflict and indecision (Janis, & Mann, 1977), irrational belief that one is not a worthwhile person (Ellis, & Knaus, 1977), and to maintain a sense of self-esteem (Burka, & Yuen, 1983), is also likely produce psychological illnesses. Some of which are anxiety, despair, and depression as that person fails to finish or to perform tasks he or she was assigned (Beswick, Rothblum, & Mann, 1988). This findings actually supported a recent studies of Sirois, Melia-Gordon, and Pychyl (2003) stating that procrastinators may experience poor mental health condition as a result of the above influences.