waiting time is the time duration that a customer feels when he or she waits
for a service. According to Maister (1985), perceived waiting time depends on
many factors such as the customers’ feeling of being occupied, waiting stage,
the feeling of anxious, the certainty of the wait, whether reason for the wait
is explained or not, whether the customer is alone or not and finally the value
of the service. Pruyn and Smidts (1993) and Smidts and Pruyn (1994) have named
this duration as a subjective waiting time as against the objective waiting
duration which is the actual waiting duration the customer has been waiting. On
top of that, many other researchers (Larson, 1987; Davis, 1991; Katz et al.,
1991; Taylor, 1994; Carmon et al., 1995; Lerclec et al., 1995; Hui & Tsc,
1996; Jones & Peppiatt, 1996; Moreau, 1999; Looy et al., 1998; Diaz &
Ruiz, 2002) have evaluated customer’s perceived waiting duration.

perceive waiting time as short when the waiting environment is comfortable and
familiar (Davis and Berdrow, 2010; Jone and Peppiat, 1996; Solomon and
Surprenant, 1985). Additionally, companies can improve the waiting environment
to reduce customers’ negative perceptions regarding waiting time. Service
companies can reduce waiting time by providing customers more certainty
regarding their waiting time, giving particular reasons for the wait,
comforting waiting customers, reducing customers’ anxiety and providing queuing
customers with activities to keep them occupied. Particular measures to improve
waiting environment include distracting customers by offering information such
as electronic bulletin boards, movies, music and news, (Cameron et al., 2003;
Davis and Heineke, 1994; Hul et al., 1997) or diverting their attention from
waiting to other matters such as by giving complementary snacks (Lambrecht and
Tucker, 2012; Wang, 2007; Usunier and Valette-Florence, 2007). Such
improvements of the waiting environment can reduce customers’ perceived waiting
time (Katz et al., 1991; Kc and Terwiesch, 2011; Larson, 1987). In summary,
improvement of the waiting environment is defined as the treatment of the
waiting environment to distract waiting customers.

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These factors
are waiting information provided in case of delay (Hui and Tse, 1996; Antonides
et al., 2002). Apart from considering waiting as an economic cost, it may
psychologically affect for consumers in facing uncertainty about the waiting
length and experience signi?cant stress. Studies have suggested that any
information on the waiting duration can reduce the uncertainty of the wait and
lower the overall level of stress experienced by consumers (Maister, 1985).
Previous research highlighted the impact of queuing information and waiting
duration information on the cognitive and affective aspects of the wait when
the wait is long (Hui and Tse, 1996) and during busy periods (Clemmer and
Schneider 1989).


The satisfied
customers will probably talk to the others about their good experiences. This
fact, especially in the Middle Eastern cultures, where the social life has been
shaped in a way that social communication with other people enhances the
society, is more important (Jamal & Naser, 2002). Although satisfaction has
been defined as the difference between expectation and performance, there are
differences between quality and satisfaction. For example, Parasuraman et al.
(1991) stated that satisfaction is a decision made after experiencing it, while
quality is not the same. On the other hand, in satisfaction literature,
expectation for goods is “would”, while in service literature, expectation for
goods is “should”.


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