Pandit Deendayal Petroleum University(PDPU)       School of Petroleum Management                                                                      A Report onHyperloop Transportation Industry Prepared as a part of the requirements forthe subject of Term II ProjectMBA, Trimester – II(General Management) Submitted by:Group: SR.      Name ofstudent                    Enrollment No.             1.        Akshay Dave                          20175004                             2.        Devisha Vaid                          20175009                          3.        Harshita Salecha                   20175012                          4.

        Jay Modi                                 20175025                          5.        Madhur Falodia                     20175025                          6.        Sandipsinh Jadav                   20175048 Dr.

Akash Patel(FacultyGuide) Academic year(2017-2019)  AbstractTheHyperloop, a transonic rapid tube transport system, capable of reaching speedsof700 mph in alow-pressure vacuum is becoming a reality thanks to Elon Musk and SpaceX. Nowhailed as the 5th means of transportation behind planes, trains, ships and cars,Hyperloop will change the way we move from city to city. With cities becomingmore crowded, the need for high-speed energy efficient transportation has arisen.High-speed bullet trains have reached their limits due to friction,aerodynamics, and economics. The Hyperloop concept proposes a mode oftransportation that is safer, cheaper, and faster than other modes of groundtransportation.

To studytechnological and scientific aspect of Hyperloop Transportation Industry.The projectwill be done under the guidance of Dr. Akash Patel, SPM, PDPU. Under hisMentorshipthe students hope to learn about the industries through self-learning methods.

                       Acknowledgment Wewould like to express our heartiest thanks and respect to all those whoprovided us immense help and guidance during our research. We wouldlike to thank our Project Mentor Dr. Akash Patel for providinga vision about the project.

We are alsograteful to respected program chair Dr. Narayan Baser for giving us theopportunity.Last but not the least we would liketo mention here that we are greatly indebted to each and everybody who has beenassociated with our research project at any stage but whose name does not finda place in this acknowledgement. With Sincere Regards,AKSHAY DAVE (20175004)DEVISHA VAID (20175009)HARSHITA SALECHA (20175012)JAY MODI (20175016)MADHUR FALODIA (20175025)SANDIPSINGH JADAV (20175048)         Research Process adoptedFor the purpose of our research we have adopted Secondary researchmethod.Secondary Research is a common research method, it involves usinginformation that others have gathered through primary research.

This techniqueis also known as Desk Research.This technique is performed in order to:§  Assess easy, low-cost and quick knowledge§  Clarify the research question§  Help align the focus of primary research in a larger scale and can alsohelp to identify the answer and§  Rule out potentially irrelevant project proposals (ex. The proposed workmay have already been carried out).

Table of Contents 1       Introduction. 3 1.1         Transportation Industry. 4 1.2         About Tesla. 4 1.

3         About SpaceX. 4 2       Hyperloop. 5 2.1         Origins. 5 2.2         Why the need?.

5 2.3         What is Hyperloop?. 6 2.

4         Who is developing first Hyperloop?. 6 3       Hyperloop One. 7 3.1         About. 7 3.2         Where will the first tracks be built?. 7 3.3         Projects under consideration.

7 3.4         Initial design concept. 8 4       Comparison of Transportation Facilities with Hyperloop. 9 5       FUTURE PROSPECTS OF Hyperloop. 9 6       Challenges. 11 6.1         Why should society be investing time and money in an untried technology when we could be investing in existing modes of transportation and more proven technologies like high-speed rail?.

11 6.2         What about windows?. 12 7       Conclusion.

12 8       References. 12       1        Introduction 1.1      TransportationIndustryThe transportation industry is responsible for moving people, animals,and goods from one location to another, whether by land, air, or sea. Thislarge industry includes a wide variety of organizations, such as travelairlines, railways, and cruise lines, municipal transportation companies,freight railways, cargo trucking, and air and express delivery services. Over the centuries,developments in transportation have changed how we live and work. In the early days,man used horses, mules, and other animals to travel to different locations andto transport goods. Man-made boats and ships were used to travel along coastalwaterways and across oceans for exploration and trade. Most people settled inareas nearest to the coasts because road travel was difficult and oftendangerous at the time.

As far back as the 1600s, water transportation was usedto ship agricultural products to different ports. In the 1800s, railroads werebuilt throughout the United States, resulting in more areas of the countrybeing developed and populated, and even more goods from around the countrydelivered to these areas. The transportation industry evolved further in the1900s, with the introduction of the automobile and the airplane.1.2      AboutTeslaTesla, Inc.(formerly Tesla Motors) is an American automaker, energy storage, and solarpanel manufacturing company based in Palo Alto, California.Tesla was foundedin 2003 by a group of engineers who wanted to prove that people didn’t need tocompromise to drive electric – that electric vehicles can be better, quickerand more fun to drive than gasoline cars.

Today, Tesla builds not onlyall-electric vehicles but also infinitely scalable clean energy generation andstorage products. Tesla believes the faster the world stops relying on fossil fuelsand moves towards a zero-emission future, the better.1.3      AboutSpaceXSpaceX designs,manufactures and launches advanced rockets and spacecraft.

The company wasfounded in 2002 to revolutionize space technology, with the ultimate goal ofenabling people to live on other planets.SpaceX has gainedworldwide attention for a series of historic milestones. It is the only privatecompany ever to return a spacecraft from low-Earth orbit, which it firstaccomplished in December 2010. The company made history again in May 2012 whenits Dragon spacecraft delivered cargo to and from the International SpaceStation — a challenging feat previously accomplished only by governments.Currently underdevelopment is the Falcon Heavy, which will be the world’s most powerfulrocket. All the while, SpaceX continues to work toward one of its keygoals—developing fully and rapidly reusable rockets, a feat that will transformspace exploration by delivering highly reliable vehicles at radically reducedcosts.

2        Hyperloop 2.1      OriginsWe live in an age of unbelievable technological progress — one wouldthink such changes would have brought about a new age of utopian technology.Yet in many areas of life, things don’t seem to have changed all that much, andtransportation is a woeful example of this. The roads are still lined withcars, the skies speckled with airliners.

Science fiction foresaw flying carsand teleporters the 21st century settled for Segway’s.Dreams never die, however, and the fantasy of futuristictransportation is very much alive right now as exemplified by a concept calledthe Hyperloop. While it’s not as mind-shattering as a teleporter or as fun as apersonal jetpack, the Hyperloop could revolutionize mass transit, shorteningtravel times on land and reducing environmental damage.Theidea of travelling through a vacuum tube and been around for more than 100years.

In fact, some of the very first underground railways in the UK ran usingan air pressure system. But the current idea for the Hyperloop came fromElon Musk, the entrepreneur behind PayPal, Tesla and SpaceX in 2012.Speakingat an event in California, he proposed a system of transport that would beimmune to weather, twice the speed of a plane and have a lower powerconsumption. He later went on to describe his technology as a cross between arailgun, Concorde and an air hockey table.Muskclaimed high-speed rail was too expensive and too slow in a paper he released in 2013. For distances ofaround 900 miles, a Hyperloop tube would be a more efficient means oftransporting people and transport, he claimed.

Froman early stage, Hyperloop’s design was made open source. Musk’s own commercialre-usable rocket venture Space X would have input in researching andfunding the ideas, but would not directly make the first Hyperloop. That wouldfall to private investors and entrepreneurs.

   2.2      Why theneed? Conventionalmeans of transportation (road, water, air, and rail) tend to be some mix ofexpensive, slow, and environmentally harmful. Road travel is particularlyproblematic, given carbon emissions and the fluctuating price of oil. As theenvironmental dangers of energy consumption continue to worsen, mass transitwill be crucial in the years to come.Rail travel isrelatively energy efficient and offers the most environmentally friendlyoption, but is too slow and expensive to be massively adopted. At distancesless than 900 miles, supersonic travel is unfeasible, as most of the journey wouldbe spent ascending and descending (the slowest parts of a flight.

) Given theseissues, the Hyperloop aims to make a cost-effective, high speed transportationsystem for use at moderate distances.2.3      What isHyperloop?Hyperloop is a proposed system of transport that would see pods orcontainers travel at high speeds through a tube that has been pumped into anear-vacuum. The train pods would either float using magnetic levitationtechnology or float using air caster “skis”, similar to how puckstravel across an air hockey table.

With so little friction in the tunnel, thepods would be able to travel at immense speeds.The pod would initially launch using an electricmotor before levitation takes place and the pod can glide at cruising speed inthe low-pressure environment. Tunnels for the Hyperloop would be built eitherabove or below ground, at only around 3m in diameter, taking up a smallerground footprint than traditional rail and road.

Many of the current designs feature autonomous podsthat can be launched on demand as frequently as every 20 seconds. Otherssuggest eco-friendly designs, powering the pressure pumps with clean energysuch as solar.2.4      Who is developing first Hyperloop?There have been several companies looking to createthe first commercial Hyperloop and competitions to develop the technology thatwill make the transport system a reality.

Space X has held initial design competitions forteams to build and test pods which could be used on the Hyperloop. Runningsince 2015, there have been more than 1,000 team entries to the competition towork on system, including a team from the University of Edinburgh which hasreached the finals, to be held in August.Since the launch of the competition, companies havejoined the race to develop the technology. The main runners include HyperloopTransportation Technologies and Hyperloop One.3         Hyperloop One3.

1      AboutHyperloop One isreinventing transportation by developing the world’s first Hyperloop, anintegrated structure to move passengers and cargo between two pointsimmediately, safely, efficiently and sustainably. Our team has the world’sleading experts in engineering, technology and transport project delivery,working in tandem with global partners and investors to make Hyperloop areality, now. Headquartered in Los Angeles, the company is led by CEO Rob Lloydand co-founded by Executive Chairman Shervin Pishevar and President ofEngineering Josh Giegel.

3.2      Where will the first tracks be built?There are tests already underway in Nevada fromHyperloop One, which built a 500m test track to launch its first pod. But thefirst Hyperloop may not be built in the US, as initial routes firstsuggested by Musk from Los Angeles to San Francisco have failed to takeoff. Much of the demand for Hyperloop development andtesting has come from outside of the US. The Netherlands and Finland in Europehave expressed interest as becoming the next locations for testing tracks byHyperloop One.

 Dubai and Abu Dhabi are also in the mix, asDubai’s DP World group is a major investor in the technology.Other proposed routes include a Hyperloop that wouldcut the time from London to Edinburgh to 50 minutes, while other speculated routes include several US Hyperloopand an Indian track.3.3      Projects under consideration ·        Estonia-Finland, 56miles·        Vienna-Budapest, 150miles·        The Netherlands, 266miles·        Corsica-Sardinia, 280miles·        Helsinki-Stockholm, 300miles·        Liverpool-Glasgow, 339miles·        Spain-Morocco, 391 miles·        London-Edinburgh, 414miles·        Poland, 415 miles·        Cardiff-Glasgow, 657miles·        Germany roundtrip, 1,237 miles·        Five proposed routes inIndia·        11 other proposed routesin the US·        Brno-Bratislava, 80 miles·        Abu Dhabi-Al Ain, 107miles·        San Francisco-LosAngeles, 380 miles3.4      Initialdesign conceptThe Hyperloop concept operates by sending specially designed”Capsules” or “pods” through a steel tube maintained at apartial vacuum. In Musk’s original concept, each capsule floats on a 0.02–0.05in (0.

5–1.3 mm) layer of air provided under pressure to air-caster”skis”, similar to how pucks are suspended in an air hockeytable, while still allowing for speeds that wheels cannot sustain. Hyperloop One’stechnology uses passivemaglev for the same purpose.Linear induction motors located along the tube would accelerate anddecelerate the capsule to the appropriate speed for each section of the tuberoute. Withrolling resistance eliminated and air resistance greatly reduced, thecapsules canglide for the bulk of the journey.

In Musk’s original Hyperloopconcept, an electrically driven inlet fanandair compressor would be placed at the nose of the capsule to”actively transfer high-pressure air from the front to the rear of thevessel,” resolving the problem of air pressure building in front of thevehicle, slowing it down. A fraction of the air is shunted to the skis foradditional pressure, augmenting that gain passively from lift due to theirshape. Hyperloop One’s system does away with the compressor.In the alpha-level concept, passenger-only pods are to be 7 ft 4in (2.23 m) in diameter andprojected to reach a top speed of 760 mph (1,220 km/h) to maintain aerodynamicefficiency .The design proposes passengers experience a maximum inertial acceleration of0.

5 g, about 2 or 3 times that of a commercial airliner on takeoff and landing.                                     Fig.1 Initial design concept ofHyperloop.

 4        Comparisonof Transportation Facilities with Hyperloop Musk claimed that  Hyperloop pods will be faster than trains, safer than cars and much less damagingto the environment than aircraft and it is building an entirely new “fifthmode” of transport (after planes, trains, cars and boats), complete with itsown unique infrastructure, and it is said to be the most sustainable solutionto our transportation problems.                  Fig2. Comparision of modes of transporatation5         FUTURE PROSPECTS OF Hyperloop After years ofuncertainty and skepticism over the future of Hyperloop, one of the companiespioneering the technology eagerly marched to Washington, D.C. with the visionof supersonic transportation via a series of airtight tubes.

Hyperloop Oneannounced that it has built the U.S.’s first testing site, a 1,640-foot longfull-scale track in the deserts of Nevada, putting the company one step aheadof its competitors in the race to build Elon Musk’s futuristic transportationsystem. Engineers have already begun testing some components, including thepropulsion system and the vacuum.Much of the demand for Hyperloop development and testinghas come from outside of the US.

The Netherlands and Finland in Europe haveexpressed interest as becoming the next locations for testing tracks byHyperloop One. Dubai and Abu Dhabi are also in the mix, as Dubai’s DP Worldgroup is a major investor in the technology.Eleven U.

S. teamsfrom Hyperloop One’s Global Challenge met inside a D.C. conference room andpresented their ideas for the futuristic ride. Together they represent 35 metroareas that could someday be connected by the Hyperloop. Team Nevada proposed a454-mile route running from Reno to Las Vegas, carrying freight from one of thecountry’s largest industrial centers to the state’s most popular city.

                               ByHyperloop (42.3 min)                                        ByAirplane (1H 20 min)Fig.3Reno to Las Vegas routeRob Lloyd, Hyperloop Technologies’s new CEO, says Hyperloop will likely beapproved for freight transport first, which would allow the company todemonstrate the safety of such an advanced system. It would be capable oftransporting both cargo and human passengers. But while much of the focus hasbeen on the safety and reliability of the technology—and rightly so—AlanBerger, a professor of urban design and landscape architecture at MIT, has beenthinking about where and how to design the routes so it benefits the mostpeople.                              By Hyperloop (36.

1 min)                               ByRoad (12H 51 min)Fig.4one of the proposed routes in Texas would allow commuters to live hundreds ofmiles from their office and get to work in just minutes. Former U.

S.Secretary of Transportation Anthony Foxx, who has long voiced his support fornew transportation technology also spoke on the same. He emphasizes that theHyperloop can’t happen without government cooperation.

“The government has tounderstand that sometimes you regulate when you have mature technology,” hetold the audience. “But sometimes you have to think in terms of creatingoutcomes that you want … and letting the innovation reach those outcomes andcreating dialogue with the industry as that happens.”6        Challenges 6.1      Whyshould society be investing time and money in an untried technology when wecould be investing in existing modes of transportation and more proventechnologies like high-speed rail? Hyperloopdon’t think it’s an either-or proposition. Governments should invest in betterroads, metros, airports and container ports.

A growing population and globaleconomy demands more and better infrastructure. We’ve always consideredHyperloop a complementary mode of moving people and freight. don’t know exactly how much the first few Hyperloopwill cost to build and maintain, but one outside auditor estimates we candeliver better performance for 60% of the cost of high-speed rail. That’s astart, but it’s not the disruptive improvement we’re aiming to deliver. Ourengineers have ideas to get those costs down even more.6.

2      Whatabout windows?WillHyperloop vehicles and tubes have windows? What about emergency exits? How doyou ensure passengers get to the next station? Hyperloop team is working onthese issues right now. Hyperloop not ruling out windows, but Hyperloopfocusing more on the passenger experience inside the vehicle rather thanfiguring out how to create apertures in steel tubes. Hyperloop may haveevacuation points along the way, but that also adds cost and complexity to asystem maintaining a near-perfect vacuum. A better solution may be to havepassengers glide to the next station, where they can evacuate safely.

 7        Conclusion”It quicklybecomes apparent just how dramatically the Hyperloop could changetransportation, road congestion and minimize the carbon footprint globally.Even without naming any specific cities, it’s apparent that the Hyperloop wouldgreatly increase the range of options available to those who want to continueworking where they do, but don’t wish to live in the same city, or who want tolive further away without an unrealistic commute time; solving some of themajor housing issues some metropolitan areas are struggling with.”       8        References ·········


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