P1 – Internal System Unit


Processer and options

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The CPU (Central Processing
Unit) is the brains of the computer, it is the part which allows for the four
major processes to take place. These include; execute, decode, fetch and write

In the CPU there is a vital
component, this is known as the ALU (arithmetic logic unit), and this carries
out the necessary arithmetic and logic operations that allow the computer to

Another very
important part is the CU (control Unit), it extracts instructions from ram and
decodes and completes the actions, asking the ALU for help when it is needed.

Most CPU’s
are multicore meaning that they contain more than one processor, this is better
as it means it allows the computer to operate faster as it has more computing
power and can complete more tasks at once.

run at different clock speeds, this means the speed at which a processor
executes a set of commands.

requires a set number of clock ticks/cycles to complete each instruction. The
faster the clock, the more instructions the CPU can execute per second. For
example if the CPU has a clock speed of 3.6 GHZ, which means it is completing 3,600,000,000
instructions in 1 second.

For the CPU to work you need
ram, this is temporary memory where it stores information and data that is
being currently used or that is used frequently to allow for quick access of
the data.

There are 2
different options when I comes to which CPU to buy, you can either buy an Intel
CPU or an AMD CPU. These both have different pin sets, AMD use the PGA pin set,
this involves the pins being on the CPU and the socket on the motherboard
having the female counterpart to the CPU’s pins, compared to the Intel’s LGA
socket which is the opposite having pins on the motherboards socket and having
contacts on the CPU’s surface.




















motherboard is the backbone of any computer, it is the main connectivity point
which everything else plugs into. It is a large Printed circuit board (PCB)
which can include layers of fiberglass, copper connections and copper planes
for power and signal isolation to travel through.

have to include a connection for anything that you may want to add to your
computer, so most modern motherboards will have processor sockets, PCI, HTX, DIMM,
PCIe and M.2 slots and connecting points for the power supply. There will also
be SATA connections USB connections

There are 9
different types of motherboard design, these are;

 ATX, extended ATX, mini-ATX, microATX, BTX,
microBTX, mini ITX, micro ITX and nano ITX.

motherboards also come with dedicated graphics cards (GPU’s) in them, this
means u will not have to pay extra for a GPU.

use either a PGA pin set or LGA pin set like CPU’s, this means they are
specific to certain CPU’s for example this motherboards pins are PGA meaning it
has he female parts on it and it has the connectors.

This motherboard displayed bellow is
an E-ATX motherboard meaning it is an extended ATX



After the computer
is booted up the BIOS or the Basic Input/output System is the program on a
computer’s processor which allows the computer to get started. Data exchange
between the computers operating system and external devices eg the hard disk, GPU,
keyboard, mouse and printer is also done by the BIOS




Power supply


A power supply is a component that gives
power to any electrical devices in the computer system. It gets its power from
an outlet socket in the wall and changes the current from AC (alternating
current) to DC (direct current), which is what the computer needs to function.
It also manages the voltage so it stays at the right amount, allowing the
computer to run well without overheating. The power supply is the most
important part of any computer and must function correctly for the rest of the
components to work.




Heat Sink

A heat sink
is an aluminium block containing fins that usually is attached to a fan to keep
a hot component such as a processor cool. There are two heat sink types: active
and passive.

Active heat
sinks use the power supply and usually use a fan. Sometimes these types of heat
sinks are referred to as an HSF, which means heat sink and fan.

Passive heat
sinks don’t have any mechanical parts. Passive heat sinks are often made of an
aluminium-finned radiator that spreads heat throughout the heatsink itself. For
passive heat sinks to work to their full capability, there needs to be a stream
of air moving across the fins. The picture bellow shows this




















Hard Drive Configurations and


A hard drive
is where the data that you save is stored these disks spin v fast usually at
either 5400 or 7200 RPM so that data can be accessed immediately from anywhere
on the drive. The data is stored on the hard drive magnetically, so it stays on
the drive even after the power supply is turned off.



Stands for
“Serial Advanced Technology Attachment,” or “Serial ATA.”
It is an interface used to connect ATA hard drives to a computer’s motherboard



An Integrated
Drive Electronics is an electronic interface used between a computer motherboard
data path or bus and the computer’s storage drives





Enhanced IDE
is a electronic interface between a computer and its storage devices. EIDE’s improvements
to IDE make it possible to be able to address a hard disk larger than 528



This is a protocol
where one device is in control of one or more other devices and once the communications
protocol’s relationship is established, the direction of control is always from
the master to the slave.







Serial Bus is a port that enables communication between external devices and a computer.
It connects peripheral devices such as digital cameras, mice, keyboards,
printers, scanners, media devices, external hard drives and flash drives



On PCs, the
parallel port uses a 25-pin connector and is used to connect printers,
computers and other devices that use lots of batdwith










Internal Memory



Ram is
memory in which the operating system is help as well as data that is currently in
use. This is needed due to slow transfer rates between the hard drive or solid
state drive and processer and this is capable of giving much higher write/read
speeds. While the computer is running the ram stays abut as it is volatile
memory it is deleted when the computer is powered off. When rebooted the OS
will be reloaded into the RAM.



Read only
memory contains the programme (the operating system) which allows your computer
to boot up. Rom memory is also in your motherboards in the form of the BIOS. The
data in ROM is not lost when the computer is turned off.



The cache
memory is much faster than RAM as it is closer to the CPU. This memory is built
into the chip or is inserted into a separate chip that is on a separate but
interconnecting with the CPU

Specialised Cards


Network Card

A network
interface card is a circuit board that is inserted into the cmputers
motherboard so that it can be connected to a network.

The card give
the computer a dedicated connection to a network. Computer on a local area
network usually have a network card that has been designed for the LAN transmission
technology inside of them.





Graphics Card


A graphics
card is a display adapter that is in in most computers to display graphical
data with colour, definition and overall appearance.

A graphics
card is designed to take the graphical processing tasks away from the processor
or RAM. It is its own separate unit and have it has dedicated RAM that help it
to process graphical data quickly. A graphics card must also has a dedicated
heat sink to keep the heat out of the GPU and keep it cool it stop it from
overheating and breaking. A graphics card outputs of 3-D images to a monitor
giving higher pixel ration, a broader range of colours and more. Graphics cards
includes various expansion ports e.g. HDMI, DVI, VGA and Display port




Output Devices



The monitor
displays the computer’s user interface and open programs, allowing them to
interact with the computer, usually using the keyboard and mouse.

computer monitors were built using cathode ray tubes, which made them heavy and
caused them to take up a lot of desk space. Most modern monitors are built
using LCD technology. These thin monitors take up much less space than the
older monitors.



A printer is
a machine that uses text and graphic outputs that it receives from a computer
and outputs the information to an A4 sheet of paper. The media used to transfer
the information to the paper is usually ink although toner can be used in laser
printers. In general, more expensive printers are used for higher-resolution
colour printing.



A camera is
used to take photographs or videos, the photos and videos that have been taken
can then be transferred to the computer by using a usb.


Input Devices


A scanner is
a device used to capture images of a hard copy and convert it into a soft copy.
By doing this it transfers the document from something physical to a document
on the computer.



A plotter is
a printer that takes commands from a computer to make line drawings on paper
with one or more pens. Compared to a regular printer, the plotter can draw
continuous point-to-point lines from vector graphics files or commands. There
are different types of plotters: a drum plotter draws on paper wrapped around a
drum which rotates to create one direction of the plot, while the pens move to make
the other direction; a flatbed plotter draws on paper placed on a flat surface;
and an electrostatic plotter draws on negatively charged paper with positively
charged toner.




A Coaxial
cable is a transmission line that consists of a tube of electrically conducting
material surrounding a central conductor held in place by insulators and that
is used to transmit telegraph, telephone, television, and Internet signals.



A technology
that uses glass threads/fibres to transmit data. A fibre optic cable consists
of a bundle of glass threads, each of which is capable of transmitting messages
modulated onto light waves.


Twisted Pair

Twisted pair
cabling is a type of wiring in which two conductors of a single circuit are
twisted together for the purposes of cancelling out electromagnetic
interference  from external sources; for example,
electromagnetic radiation from unshielded twisted pair cables, and crosstalk
between neighbouring pairs.


Backing storage




There are
two different types of disks, these are magnetic disks and optical disks.

Floppy disk:
A 5¼-inch floppy disk can hold 360K or 1.2MB. 3½-inch floppies normally store 720K,
1.2MB or 1.44MB of data. Floppy disks are very old and have been forgotten
about, and are found on older computer systems.

Hard disk:
Hard disks can store anywhere from 20MB to more than 1-TB. Hard disks are also a
lot faster that floppy disks being from 10 to 100 times faster than a regular
floppy disk

cartridge: Removable cartridges are hard disks which have been stored in a
metal or plastic cartridge, so you can take them out just like a floppy disk.
Removable cartridges are fast, although usually not as fast as fixed hard


storage is any storage method where the data is written and read with a laser
to save it. Usually, data is written to optical media, such as CDs and DVDs.


A solid
state drive which uses non-volatile memory to retain data.


A storage
device that can be attached to a computer through a USB connection, or
wirelessly. External hard drives typically have high storage capacities and are
often used to back up computers or serve as a network drive. Data is usually
transferred through the USB port in these devices.


A hard disk
drive is a data storage device that uses magnetic storage to store and retrieve
digital information using one or more rigid rapidly rotating disks coated with
magnetic material.





M1 –Comparing and Contrasting


Western Digital – Caviar Blue

This is a
solid hard drive and has a 7200RPM and is 1TB, it costs £40. This s a very low
end HDD being slow and holding a small amount of storage. Its data transfer
rate is in the low Mb/s as it is very slow.


Intel – DC P3608

This is a
PCI-e solid state drive, it is one of the most upmarket storage types as it
connects directly to the motherboard via PCI-e meaning its transfer rates are
up to 8GB/s  compared to the Mb/s of the
hard drive that has been stated above.



I would
recommend that the Western Digital – Caviar Blue HDD should be used as it does
everything that the business needs to accomplish in the time frame, it doesn’t
need to be too fast but it completes the purpose it has been bought for .


Urban mobile
does not need its data transfer rates to be too high they just need it to be
within a reasonable timeframe for example 10 seconds whereas a company such as
google would need a much higher transfer rate as they are a search engine, so
their data centre would need to have much faster data storage.      












P2 –Types of disaster recovery


Types of backup storage

You can back
up the data to; An External Hard Drive

                                                 A Solid State Drive

                                                 Network Attached Storage    


I would
advise backing up urban mobiles data to the cloud as it is a very good offsite
backup. That isn’t affected by events and disasters such as theft, floods, fire
etc. Also they could also copy their data to an external hard drive that is on
site as this is a very good option for local backups of large amounts of data as
it is the cheapest storage option in terms of pounds per GB it is also very
reliable when handled with care.

The cloud
backup would be located offsite in for example one of googles data centres or
whoever is hosting the cloud service and the External HDD would be located on
site, meaning urban mobile would need to purchase the equipment to allow for
them to store this data.

The data
should be backed up at the end of every day to make sure if any new customers
have joined they will have a backup of their info and to make sure the backup
is as up to date as it can possible be.

The data
that will be backed up will be user accounts, information, stock quota and
current prices along with customer purchase history as well as staff
information, staff payroll etc.

I decided to
advise Urban Mobile to use cloud storage as this means they don’t have to worry
out maintaining a server meaning they will not have to hire specialist staff to
ensure the maintenance and running of it, also it means it isn’t affected by
disasters or theft etc.

It also
means urban mobile could in theory reduce annual their operating costs by using
cloud storage; cloud storage costs about 2 pence per gigabyte to store data
internally. Users can see additional cost savings because it does not require
internal power to store information remotely. Also, it means Stored files can
be accessed from anywhere via Internet connection.

As mentioned
before cloud storage is located offsite using a company’s data storage services





P3 –Appropriate components


The software
that would run on the servers would be, OpenMediaVault, as it has a very clean
and user-friendly UI, also it is based on Debian meaning it will receive
frequent patch and updates

The server
that I advise using will be the ASUSTOR AS-604T as it is not too expensive at
£308, it contains four bays meaning there will be enough space to add extra
storage cater for the company’s needs. It also contains a cloud backup as well
as being able to run RAID.

It will be
cloud connected meaning that the data will be transferred wirelessly, or you
can manually connect it in a LAN also.

An off-site
server engineer will need to be hired meaning if something goes wrong he can be
phoned in order to get the problem resolved.

This set up
is very accessible as the server is simple and easy to understand, the software
used in it us user friendly and has a clean interface.


Operating systems

The role of
an operating system is to control the backing store and peripherals such as
scanners and printers, to deal with the transfer of programs in and out of
memory, the organisation of memory between programs, to organises processing
time between programs and users, to maintains security and access rights of
users, to deals with errors and user instructions and it allows the user to
save files to a backing store as well as providing  the interface between the user and the
computer – for example, Windows Vista and Apple OS.

Utility Software

software are applications which allow the user to manage the computer, examples
of utility software are, Backup, disk cleaner, disk defrag, formatting. These
are the maintenance utilities, some of the security utilities include, User
accounts, encryption, antivirus software and firewalls.

Application Software

software, which can also be called an application or an app, is computer
software which has been specifically designed to help the user to perform
specific tasks. Examples include accounting software, office suites, and
graphics software and media players. Applications may be bundled with the
computer and its system software, or may be published separately. In recent
years, the abbreviation “app” has now means application software designed
for mobile devices.

P4 –Installing Hardware



The RAM slot has been opened and the 2GB stick on top of the power supply
is ready to be inserted into the open slot, so it can but put into dual channel
with the other 2GB Ram stick






The ram has
been inserted and has been closed locking it into place meaning it will not
come loose and fall out.





inserted correctly this should appear when the ram has been inserted and if it
does not it would suggest something has been done wrong.




P5 – Maintenance


Types of
preventive maintenance include installing Windows updates, scanning for viruses
and malware, and running cleaning programs. Anti-virus and anti-malware scans
should also be run a few times or at least once a week. Be sure to run updates
for these programs whenever they “rereleased, as new viruses and malware spring
up constantly. Keeping your network secure, installing a firewall, and using
safe downloading practices can protect your computer and any information on it
from being compromised. Power surges and overheating can destroy electronic
equipment, so protect your hardware by investing in a surge protector and
cleaning your equipment periodically to remove dust. Should any preventative
measures fail, it is always a good idea to have a backup for important files:
Invest in an external hard drive to save any important files should your
computer need replacing.

Types of
remedial maintenance would be for if the mouse is unresponsive if the mouse
doesn’t show up on the screen or doesn’t seem to move correctly, then you must
go to start < configuration < control panel < mouse. The indicators shown control the mouse functions, if the configuration seems correct verify that the mouse is correctly connected, or possible failures of a video card are: spots show up on the screen, the video doesn't load, it doesn't have a good resolution or it's not in colours; the solution is to change the entire thing or take it to someone who can find the damaged connection and repair it. The failures that occur in the Hard Drive are the scratching of the platters, overheating of the controller board, physical damage to the conductors and dents caused by a lack of caution when giving maintenance, there is only one solution, to replace the whole part by a new one as there is no way to repair it. Scaglia INDEVA have designed a preventative maintenance product which gives u access to regular servicing from their highly trained engineers. An Electronic Records Management System is a program that has been designed to track and store records, this is the type of software that would be used in the documentation of the maintenance plans. Dust and debris will accumulate in the PC's parts because of air cooling. Any filters used to reduce this need regular service and changes. I would choose preventative maintenance over routine maintenance as this allows you to mitigate any chance of problems occur therefor meaning you will not have to pay expensive bills to get parts repaired or replaced due to dam age over time or power surges killing your machines power source etc. Routine would be best for the collage as it means the collage can set the date for when the students are not in school meaning they will not miss out due o the computers being down and not available for usage.             P6 – Test Plan                                        Planning is needed before conducting the maintenance as you need clear guidelines to show how it needs to be completed and in which specific order as if it is not it means that in the process something could break, and you wouldn't know how to revert or correct the mistake. A type of maintenance would be by using route maps, route maps are used when redistributing routes into an OSPF, RIP, or EIGRP routing process. They are also used when generating a default route into an OSPF routing process. A route map defines which of the routes from the specified routing protocol can be redistributed into the target routing process.  Another type is an upgrade schedule, this is when a specific time and date is set aside to upgrade the components of a computer.                                                                                                          


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