Osteoarthritis (OA), which is a progressive degenerativechronic disease, can cause joint stiffness, swelling, pain and loss of mobility,characterized by cartilage and synovial inflammation.1 A highprevalence of OA is seen mainly in elderly population (85% of above 65 years ofage worldwide).3 Although there is no chance offull recovery from OA, primary management of OA is done by prescribing analgesicsand non steroidal anti inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) to reduce the symptoms(pain, stiffness etc).3 But a prolonged use of pharmacologicalagents leads to substantial gastrointestinal, renal, and cardiovascular sideeffects. So, as alternative therapy nutraceuticals and supplements are on therise.
4 The term ‘nutraceutical’ was developedfrom ‘nutrition’ and ‘pharmaceutical’ in 1989 by DeFelice and was originallydefined as ‘a food (or part of the food) that provides medical or healthbenefits, including the prevention and/or treatment of a disease.2 Some of the mostcommonly used nutraceuticals in joint pathology include glucosamine,chondroitin sulfate, Hyaluronic acid, krill oil, fish oil, turmeric, gammalinolenic acid and avocado-soybean unsaponifiables. 4 Recentstudies indicate that the other natural compounds like phytoflavonoids,polyphenols, and bioflavonoids, which are found in fruits, teas, spices, wine,and vegetables, have shown the most potential to modify OA disease and symptomsbased on their anti-inflammatory and anti-catabolic actions, and protectiveeffects against oxidative stress.6 This is well proved that neutraceuticals improve cartilage health, but stillpreclinical studies are still required for analyzing the activity ofnutraceutical products.
Asa result neutraceuticalswere extensivelystudied in in vivo efficacy studies which demonstrated significantanti?inflammatory activity in acute and chronic inflammatory. The reviewobjective is to disscuss the commonly used neutraceticals including their rolein OA in brief and the preclinical studies which are done to prove theeffectivity of these agents.