On the one hand, capitalism denotes a specific economic and social order, and on the other hand an epoch of economic history. The central features are controversial in light of historical change and the numerous definitions of capitalism and ideological differences. In general, capitalism is understood as an economic and social order based on private ownership of the means of production and control of production and consumption via the market. As an epoch of economic history, capitalism is understood as a period of economic history that is still going on today. She followed the epochs of feudalism of the European Middle AgesKarl Marx and Friedrich Engels describe capitalist society as a society of misery, exploitation and alienation. The Communist Party Manifesto of 1848 sees globalization, internationalization and urbanization as positive. But it contains the fundamental request to replace capitalism by socialism or communism in order to eliminate the alleged abuses.In the Capital, Marx emphasizes above all the exploitative character of capitalism. The capitalist increases his capital through the exploitation of foreign labor, since he pays the wage-laborer only a part of the value created by the worker. On the other hand, the capitalist extorts a large part of the value created by the worker as surplus value, from which he derives his profit. Instead of improving its position with the advancement of industry, the worker becomes a pauper, so that he is in for a general impoverishment. According to Karl Marx, the abolition of private ownership of the means of production is the economic prerequisite of a classless society.The Pan-African Congress was a series of five international gatherings at the beginning of the 20th century, organized by WEB Du Bois, dedicated to the situation of the African continent and the Africans in the diaspora. They also provided forums for cultural and intellectual exchange among black intellectuals, professionals and activistsThe Congresses  took place in 1919 (Paris), 1921 (London, Paris, Brogue), 1923 (London, Lisboa), 1927 (New York City) and 1945 (Manchester). Following a general disillusionment with the First World War, Congress was to tackle the problems of the continent caused by the colonial policies of the major European powers. The following decolonization of Africa was decisively influenced philosophically and politically by the results of the congresses. The principles and ideals formulated by the Pan-African Congresses were widely distributed among the young intellectuals of Africa. Many of the later protagonists of African statehood like Hastings Kamuzu Banda, Kwame Nkrumah, Obafemi Awolowo und Jomo Kenyatta were early familiar with the ideas of Pan-Africanism.Today the relevance of the Pan-African idea is not its origin and history, but its current goals. Pan-Africanism means above all the recognition of the fragmented existence of people with African roots, their exclusion, marginalization and alienation, both on the continent and in the diaspora. Pan-Africanism tries to address Africa’s underdevelopment and its real reasons. Africa has been exploited and there is still a culture of dependency. Pan-Africanism appeals to Africans to create independence on their own and with their own abilities.


The Négritude movement is a literary-philosophical political movement that advocates a cultural self-assertion of all people of Africa and their African descent. The notion of Négritude was developed in the course of decolonization in the 1930s by francophone intellectuals such as Aimé Césaire (Martinique), L.S. Senghor (Senegal) and L.G. Damas (Guyana) as a political term of black self-determination.One of the most influential writers of Négritude is Léopold S. Senghor. Senghor always sought a dialogue with the colonial power of France, which is also reflected in his philosophy of Négritude. He tried to clarify the relationship between African and European culture, which was negatively influenced by colonization. Senghor always emphasized the special character and dignity of Africans. He called for a return to the values ??of African culture, which was intended to serve as an emancipatory definition.However, there had been some criticisms, most of them based on Senghor’s specific theoretical-philosophical assumptions that permeated his thinking and writing, their political consequences, and Senghor’s approach to France. Among Senghors critics who raise their doubts through publications and contributions to events, was Wole Soyinka. The Nigerian playwright and Nobel laureate in literature criticized the movement and its representatives for nearly three decades and was thus one of Senghor’s most prominent opponents. Frantz Fanon, a Martiniquean writer, also accused the Négritude movement as being essentialist and fostering static Western European prejudices, as well as failing to consider and understand the cultures of disadvantaged rural and urban cultures.

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