Omar Abdulla B.Tech (MAE) – AUD5870 Semester 3 January 8, 2018  Contents ·      Introduction·     Thetwo types of drones:·     Sizes of drones ·     Features·     Drones With Sensors·      Drone Technology progress ·      Uses of Drones·     Usage of drones over the years·     Advantages ·     Disadvantages       Abstract This term paper is about commercial and military dronetechnology. Its about how drones work and how they effect the future by the technologyand the progress they make in this earth and how can we increase and make it abetter place using the drone technology. furthermore, the seven generations ofdrone technology well be shown  also wellbe having some information about the camera in the drone and how its connectedto the pilot because is an aircraft without a human pilot on board  for that cameras must be fixed.  Introduction What is a drone ?A drone, in a technological context, is an unmannedaircraft. Drones are more formally known as unmanned aerial vehicles(UAVs).

  Essentially, a drone is aflying robot. The aircrafts maybe remotely controlled or can fly autonomously through software-controlledflight plans in their systems working in connected with onboard sensors and GPS.   The two types ofdrones:1.      The Commercialdrone technology which is used for Aerial photography  and filming One of the most popular drones onthe market is the DJI Phantom 3.  Thisdrone was very popular with professional aerial cinematographers2.  the military Dronesare used in situations where manned flight is considered too risky ordifficult. They provide troops with a 24-hour “eye in the sky”, sevendays a week. Each aircraft can stay alert for up to 17 hours at a time, loitering over an area and sending backreal-time imagery of activities on the ground.

 Sizesof drones Drones come in a wide variety of sizes, with thelargest being mostly used for military purposes such as the Predator drone andto the smallest which is used for commercial  ·       The world biggest drone weights 16,000 pounds and 44 feetlong the Avenger is now the largest UAV in the U.S. arsenal Its Biggest and FastestArmed Drone Ever. ·         World’sSmallest FPV (first person view) Drone which has the size of   4.

3cm x4.3cm x 2.5cm and weight less than a gram.  Small DronesThe smallest size drones are mini drones. They can literally fit in thepalm of your hand, and some are even the size of a quarter. These drones rangein price from under $10 to over $60.

Most are priced in the $15-$30 range theymost likely used in indoor areas Medium-Sized DronesA medium-sized drone is typically double the size of a miniature droneor bigger. These drones come with more power, larger propellers, and additionalfeatures. Many also come with low-grade cameras for taking aerial photos andvideos.

Professional-Grade DronesProfessionalpilots typically try to fly the best drones withthe most advanced features. Commercial drones come in the largest sizes. Theyalso come with advanced features, like autonomous flight modes, obstacleavoidance, on-the-fly camera setting adjustments, first person view, and awhole lot more. This gives a professional pilot lots of room to get the bestshots possible and be creative at the same time. You can get a professional quality drone for $500 all the way up to $13,000 or more for a customrig. Features Radar Positioning, the flight radar displays the current position and location of the drone in relation to the pilot.

Return Home, Exceeding the control range of the remote control will trigger a ‘Return-to-Home’ feature, meaning the UAV will automatically fly back to its takeoff point and land safely.·       No Fly Zone Drone Technology, in order to increaseflight safety and prevent accidental flights in restricted areas, the latestdrones from DJI and other manufacturers include a “No Fly Zone” feature.Drones With SensorsMultispectral, Lidar,Photogrammetry and Thermal vision sensors are now being used on drones toprovide 3D models of buildings and landscape; Digital Elevation Maps (DEMS) ofland, and provide precision data on the health of crops, flowers, fauna, shrubsand trees.With Lidar and photogrammetry mapping, the dronewill be programmed to fly over an particular area using GPS waypointnavigation. The camera on the drone will take photographs at say 0.5 or 1second intervals.  These photos are then stitched together usingspecialized software to create the 3D images.-      A multispectral image is onethat captures image data within specific wavelength ranges across theelectromagnetic spectrum-      Lidar is a remote sensing method used to examine thesurface of the Earth.

–      Photogrammetry isthe process of deriving metric information about an object through measurementmade on the photograph of the object.-      Thermal visionsensors is essentially a heatsensor that is capable of detecting tiny differences in temperature. Thedevice collects the infrared radiation from objects in the scene andcreates an electronic image based on information about the temperature differences.  Drone Technology progress Drone technology is constantly evolving, day byday drones are becoming more and more useful future of drones is getting betterand better, drone technology has seven potential generations.·        Generation1: basic aircraft which is remotely controlled.·        Generation2: better design, fixed cameras and manual piloting control withalso video recording camera.

·        Generation3:  HD video camera fixed, safety mode fixed, assisted dronecontrol, two axis gimbals.·        Generation4:  better video camera 1080P HD, improved safety modes and improvedobstacles avoidance, autopilot modes fixed, Three-axis gimbals.·        Generation5: 4K camera video, intelligent piloting modes applied, 360°gimbals.·        Generation6: Professional camera suitable for commercial but not fully suitable,automated safety modes with more technology, fully automatic piloting.·        Generation7: fully suitable for commercial, design with the lightest materialsto be easier to flight, fully and complete automatic safety modes, auto action(takeoff, land, and mission execution) with one button.   Uses of Drones ·       Fishing Drone fishing may sound not possible at all , avideo was released  a giant fish has beencaptured using a drone where they have placed their bait 100 meters off thebeach and many people had followed this trend due to that there’s now a dronemanufactured just for fishing called the AeroKontiki.

 ·       SurfingThishas to be one of the coolest ways a drone has ever been used. Freefly produceslarge drones that are waterproof and can carry 20 pounds. These drones aremanufactured for the media but instead of carrying a camera, their latestdrone, ALTA 8, was outfitted with a rope to pull a surfer.

The drone costs$18,000 but definitely introduces a new way for surfers that doesn’t depend ongood waves. ·       Fire FightingFighting a raging fire is oneof the toughest jobs in the public service world. Firefighters are often forcedto rush into a blaze, having no idea of the scope of it. Lately, the use ofdrones by fire departments and police agencies has grown across the globe. Anaerial view from a drone help firefighters figure out the size of the fire anddevelop tactical methods accordingly. ·       Shipping/ DeliveryDones can be used to deliver small packages,pizzas, letters, medicines, beverages etc. at short distances  ·       Journalism, Filmingand aerial photography Drones are starting to be used in sports photographyand cinematography.

They were used in the 2014 WinterOlympics  for filming skiingand snowboarding events due to difficulty in recording these kinds of sports. ·      uses of drone in ancient architectural sitesDrones can be manufactured in verysmall sizes and due to this, drones can reach places humans cant.As of right now, drones are beingprepped to enter tight spaces into The Pyramids Of Giza so as to learn thingsof the Pyramids. We weren’t able to enter this space due to it being so small,but with the help of drones we can enter this place without causing anystructural damage to the Pyramids.                   Usage of drones over the years         Over the past few years, drones have becomecentral to the functions of various businesses and governmental organizations. drones are proving to be extremely beneficial in places where man cannotreach or is unable to perform in a timely and efficient manner.

Increasing workefficiency and productivity, decreasing workload and production costs,improving accuracy,  It’s a technologythat everyone is benefiting from . Whether drones are controlled by a remote oraccessed via a smartphone app, they possess the capability of reaching the mostremote areas with little to no manpower needed and require the least amount ofeffort, time, and energy. This is one of the biggest reasons why they are beingadopted worldwide, especially by these four sectors: Military, Commercial,Personal, and Future Technology Advantages ·       Surpassing the traffic.·       Used in dangerous environment.·       Environment friendly.·       Using natural energy.

·       Filming wildlife has become easier.·       Uses in all spheres. Disadvantages·       Weather – drones can run into physical barriers suchas wind, birds and air traffic.·       Domestic drones violate the right to privacy. ·       Easy to shoot down.·       Limited battery power.·       Too small for transportation of materials.

·       GPS signals tends to drop between tall buildings. 

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