National TextileUniversity, Faisalabad Topic:                                         Router Group MemberMuhammad Farooq                        15-NTU-1084Behzad-ul-Haq                           15-NTU-1083       Overview:We can cover following contents:v What is router.v System and hardware routerv Routing Tablev Router internal componentv Types of Routerv Interface of Routerv Static and Dynamic and Default Routerv Router Protocolv Autonomous systems:v Classes of router protocolv Advantages and Disadvantages Router:v Router can connect two or morenetwork for communication.v Routing is the process that a router uses toforward packets toward the destination network. v A router makes decisions basedupon the destination IP address of a packet. v In order to make the correctdecisions, routers must learn the direction to remote networks.

v Router is called computer but itis design to perform specific task and find the path to send data. Router isalso called internet working device.System router:            Our personal computer can act asrouter. This type of router is called system router.Hardware router:            A device which is specially designedfor communication among different networks is called hardware router.

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Hardwarerouter is more efficient because it is specially designed for communicationamong different networks and it is faster than software router.Routing table:            Router can be create table that iscalled routing table. It will transfer packet with the help of table fromsource to destination. It will contain all the possible information aboutdestination. e.g.

IP address , different paths etc.Worked in Network Layer:            Router can be work in the thirdlayer of OSI Model. In network layer different network are communication withone another. The router is used to connect the network layer. Router canconnect different network layer for communication.            Packets aretransfers from source to destination are shown in figure.                                                                                Router inter Component:There are some component that is used in router are RAM:Packet buffer, Runningconfigurations, running IOSROM:Rom Monitor, Baby IOSNVRAM:Backup configurations, Config registerFLASH:IOS              Type of Router:There are four types of router that is:v Broad Band Routerv Wireless Routerv Edge Routerv Core Router Broad Band Router:            The device that access to theinternet for multiple computers.

Its typically includes a network switch withfour or more Ethernet ports for wired connection to desktop and laptopcomputer.Wireless Router:            Wireless routing creates a wirelesssignal in your home or office. So, any computer within range of wirelessrouters can connects it and used it. It works much like a wired router butreplaces wires with wireless radio signals to communicate to and externalnetwork environment.Edge Router:            Edge devices are that which providesentry points into enterprise or service provider core networks. Examplesinclude routers, routing switches, integrated access devices, multiplexer and avariety MAN and WAN access devices.

Core Router:            Core router is used to connectdifferent cities.Interface of Router: There are two interface of router that is LANinterface and WAN interface.LAN interface:            In Local Area Network, the routerconnect multiple computers which are work in only one network.v Are used to connect router to LANnetworkv Has a layer 2 MAC addressv Can be assigned a layer 3 IPaddressv Usually consists of an RJ-45 jackWAN Interface:            In Wide Area Network, the routersconnect multiple networks for communication.v Are used to connect router toexternal networks that interconnects LANsv Depending on the WAN technology,a layer 2 address may be usedv Uses a layer 3 IP addressType of Routing:There arethree type of routing that is: v Static Routingv Dynamic Routingv Default RoutingStatic Routing:            In static routing, we use manualconfiguration.

Static routing is best for small networks. If we have lessdevices then we use static routing. We can configure all the devices one by onein this routing. We face difficulties to configure if we have large number ofdevices one by one. Static routing is not flexible because if we save path inrouting table and it will be destroy some issue than the can’t find anotherpath to go to destination if there is another path is available in routingtable and not to find it.

This type of routing is only depend on theadministration. There will be high overhead in this routing becauseadministration is check all the path and change if required. We can control therouting in static routing.

      Dynamic Routing:             In dynamic routing, we use automaticconfiguration. Dynamic routing is best for large networks. If we have largenumber of devices than we use dynamic routing.

We can’t feel difficulties if wehave large no. of device because the configuration is automatic. If one path ismiss than this type of routing find another path to send data to destinationautomatically. This is not depend on to the administration because it usedautomatic configuration. There are less overhead in this routing. We are lesscontrol the routing in this type as compare to static routing.         Default Routing: This type of routingused manual configuration. So this is called static routing.

Default routing is used to routepackets with destinations that do not match any of the other routes in therouting table.    Router Protocol:            There are two type of protocol inrouter that is:v Routed Protocolv Routing ProtocolRouting Protocol:            Routing protocol can find the no. ofrouter available than send the packet throw shortest best path.

Routingprotocol is the communicate used between routers. Examples of routing protocolare:v Routing Information Protocol(RIP, RIP II)v Open Shortest Path First (OSPF)v Intermediate System toIntermediate System (IS-IS)v Interior Gateway Routing Protocol(IGRP)v CISCI Enhanced Interior GatewayRouting Protocol (CIGRP)v Border Gateway Protocol (BGP)Route Protocol:            This protocol can define the size andformat of packet. It is used to direct user traffic. Examples of routerprotocol are:v Internet Protocolv Novell IPXv DECnetv Apple talk  Autonomoussystems:An autonomous system (AS) is acollection of networks under a common administration sharing a common routingstrategy.

The outside world, an AS is viewed as a single entity. Purposeof a routing protocol and autonomous systems:v When all routers in an internetworkare operating with the same knowledge, the internetwork is said to haveconverged. v Fast convergence is desirable becauseit reduces the period of time in which routers would continue to make incorrectrouting decisions.

v Autonomous systems (AS) provide thedivision of the global internetwork into smaller and more manageable networks. v Each AS has its own set of rules andpolicies and an AS number that will uniquely distinguish it from otherautonomous systems throughout the world.Classes of Routing Protocol:          Most routing algorithm can beclassified into two categories.v Distance Vectorv Link StateDistance Vector:The distance vector routing approach determines the direction(vector) and distance to any link in the internetwork.       Link State:The link-state approach, also called shortest path first,recreates the exact topology of the entire internetwork.

         Advantages:v Connecting an internet modem directlyto a PC exposes that PC to a host of security issues.v A router is not a replacement for afirewall or anti malware measures, but it’s an important first step toward alargely secure network environment.v Router can connect different mediaand architecture.v Router can determine thebest/shortest path to send data to the destination.

   Disadvantages:v Routers are more expensive than Hub,Bridge and Switch.v Routing update consume bandwidth.v Router can add additional IP-basedheaders. These headers include information such as source and destinationaddresses, UDP information and checksum. These headers attached to everypayload of data.v Large piece of data are typically broken into thousands ofsmaller headers, making this header data consume a percentage of the totalavailable bandwidth.

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