Naqiya Khan ENG-122 Final paper Multiple Personality Disorder Wouldn’t it be strange if you had a neighbor who would show up as a different personality every time you would meet? What if she is talking to herself and gets violent for no reason? What if your neighbor is scared of you all the time? I am pretty sure you would not like to live with such a neighbor. But I did have a neighbor who had all the wired features I mentioned above. I was always annoyed and wanted to get rid of such a neighbor. Until I came to know about the reason behind her weird behavior.
She was not doing all this on purpose to hurt me or scare me. It was not in her control, she was helpless and yes, she had multiple personality disorder. Many researchers make a point that multiple personality disorder is just a myth. They claim that another personality has been in a human only after seeing a movie. As movies play an important role in our lives. As people are not always sincere. They can act for money or publicity.
MPD disappeared in mid 90’s. Hence the insurance company stopped paying the MPD treatment. Later on, patients started suing the doctors for illegal activities. I think psychologists convey this message because sometimes when we see something different. We tend to think more about the situation and get involved so much that our brain starts to function like that. The main idea of the paper is to show that multiple personality disorder is real. In order to share a little about multiple personality disorder Firstly, I would describe and define about multiple personality. Secondly, I would like to show some cases of people experiencing multiple personality in kids and adults and also history of multiple personality disorder.
Lastly, I would describe some symptoms and treatment for this disorder in kids and adults. According to the psychologists, multiple personality is a disorder in which a person experiences more than one personality. Where each personality can have their own unique habits. It is also known as split personality or dissociative disorder. You might be wondering if this is real. As this sounds really scary and unrealistic.
I hope to convince you that multiple personality disorder exists and is a dangerous illness that has to be treated. Even though many experts believe that split personality does not exist. To begin, here are some questions that triggered my mind, when I started to research about this topic.
How people feel more than one personality? why do they change their accent? Why other personalities dominate the patient’s own personality? One factor that causes this to happen is childhood trauma. As this split the personality to protect against the torture. “While there is no proven specific cause of DID, the prevailing psychological theory about how the condition usually develops is as a reaction to severe childhood trauma” (Dryden-Edwards). As a child it is very difficult to defend ourselves and explain about the misery we go through. Trauma can be due to physical or mental abuse, playing with emotions, harming, bad memories etc.
This can cause a long-term impact on our brain and also on neurotransmitters giving origin to split mind. Other factors that contribute to this disorder include obsession, stress, fear etc. Psychologists diagnosed and concluded the three types of MPD (multiple personality disorder) which include dissociative amnesia, dissociative identity disorder, depersonalization-derealization disorder. Now, I will describe the types of disorder and its causes. Dissociative amnesia is a mental illness that involves a loss of memory or identity.
It can affect the patient’s daily activities. This disorder create gap for long period and can cause brain injury. This is associated with stress, accidents, disaster, or a close relative experiencing this disorder. In identity disorder the person discovers more than one personality. Hence, they feel no control over their body and emotions. That’s why they feel many personalities reside in their body.
And change their behavior according to their age and experience. This can be due to stress, nightmare, influence by seeing others, fear, torture etc. The last and the third type of disorder is depersonalization-derealization, where the patient can feel detached from his family and the world. Thus, he tries to imagine his world where everything is according to him. This makes the patient feel satisfied and protected. This is caused because of depression, anxiety, loneliness and also, fear of losing something. In 1863 Louis Vivet, a 17 years old boy was the most considered case studied as multiple personality disorder.
He experienced sleepwalking, losing confidence, and memory loss. Later Schizophrenia was introduced by Eugen Blueler in 1908. Hence increasing the cases of schizophrenia in 1910, and split personality was given least preference in the United States. A book namely “Three Faces of Eve” a case based on real life of Chris Costner Sizemore studied by Corbett H. Thigpen and Harvey M. Cleckley again introduced multiple personality disorder. In 1970 campaign was held to spread awareness about the disorder and helped people diagnosed from split personality.
According to the Psychologists there were 40,000 cases reported in the United States from 1970 through 1988. In 1974 a book Sybil was published, introducing Shirley Ardell Mason’s experience of multiple personality disorder. Therapists discovered 16 personalities residing within her. The author reveled that she was experiencing this because of her childhood physical and sexual abuse. In 2006 the researchers introduced the three different types of multiple personality disorders.
Which include dissociative amnesia, dissociative identity disorder, depersonalization-derealization disorder. Moving on, I will describe three cases of people suffering from multiple personality disorder. The three cases have different situations. According to Canadian journal of psychiatry there has been 72 cases reported from 1975 through 1988. A case of 42 years old female was focused in the journal as she was misdiagnosed. When she was admitted in the hospital, she complained of feeling auditory hallucination, restlessness and discomfort. She was also unable to recall her childhood experiences and also, that her parents were addicted to alcohol. She was a very good student, but at the age of 16 she was raped four times.
Hence, she was hospitalized several times and this trauma caused her relationship with men not to last that long. She claimed that at the age of 17 she cut herself by mistake and couldn’t feel any pain. After four years she was hospitalized again for behaving strangely and an attempt to suicide. Doctors diagnosed and concluded that she was suffering from schizophrenia.
Later her friend claimed that she was suffering from multiple personality disorder, because of her mood swings, childish behavior, and poor memory. As she had read several books on the disorder. Considering her friends advice after several doctors diagnosing her reported that she was suffering from split personality. Another case of a 29 years old male misdiagnosed at MC Lean hospital reported by an instructor at Harvard medical school. The patient had no experience of childhood trauma but an accident changed him completely. His car went inside the river and was almost drowned. But, a group of people rescued him. He claimed in an interview that he does not remember anything about the accident.
As soon another personality controls his body he claims to remember everything. He also provides all the details and also describes how his family took him to the hospital before his death. After listening to him the interviewer gets curious to know why he feels that he is dead. The patient replies and say that maybe he was just imagining. Doctors reported that he was suffering from dissociative experiences, but they were not clear and was not able to detect the exact mental illness he was suffering from. The case of a 23 years old Junita Maxwell was arrested in 1979.
She was arrested because of the murder of a 72 years old Inez Kelley. The victim was a guest in a hotel Fort Myer in Florida. Maxwell was a waitress and she had blood on her shoes and scratches on her face.
In the court she refused to accept her guilt and said she did not murder. Later she was sent to hospital, physiatrists concluded that she was suffering from a mental illness. Maxwell did not murder instead Wanda committed. She had six personalities residing within her and Wanda was one of them. She was very violent, bossy, and flirtish. When the judge asked Wanda about the murder, she started laughing and explained how she killed a 72-year-old with the lamp. She was admitted in the hospital and was given tranquilizers. After 6 months she was released and was again arrested for robbing two banks.
She again claimed that she didn’t do the robbing. Seeing her status judge released her from the prison and ordered to provide a proper treatment for her illness. After the physiatrist diagnosing her again concluded that she was suffering from multiple personality disorder. Now let us focus on the important part of the paper. That is what are the symptoms and treatments of multiple personality disorder in kids and adults.
Let me first introduce what are the symptoms and treatments of multiple personality disorder in adults. In multiple personality disorder patient can encounter more than one personalities. Hence, they view the world in a very distinct manner.
Researchers conclude that females experience split personality nine times more than males. Some of the symptoms diagnosed by physiatrists are memory loss, lying, feeling detached, auditory hallucination, feeling more than one personality, imagining unfamiliar people, talk to themselves, feels everything is not real, depression, mood swings etc. However, some of the treatments to cure this include psychotherapy, hypnosis, eye movement etc. Psychotherapy is considered the most effective treatment because it helps to boost your relationships with others. It allows to express their feelings and the consequences about their past. Hence this helps them to get rid of the negativity they have about themselves. Hypnosis helps in detecting how many different personalities a patient has.
It allows the doctor to talk to the personalities and know the reason why they occupy the body. Basically, it can specify the reason on behalf of the patient. Doctors also observe that the different personalities residing in the patient are more confident, bold and sometimes violent. Whereas, eye movement results in healing. It helps the patient to increase their concentration and focus. However, if the therapy is misdiagnosed the patient can suffer from anxiety, trauma, violent behavior, can kill himself or others, suicide. Even though there is some therapy for MPD, it cannot work 100% on every individual; As it solely depends on the patient. This treatment requires a long-term commitment as it cannot be easily cured.
Now let us focus about the symptoms and treatments in kids. Some of the symptoms of multiple personality disorder observed in kids are mood swings, cannot easily focus and get involved in any activity, feeling guilty, school difficulties, change in language, problem with recalling the memory. Children with this disorder at younger age can imagine friends. It seems very real to the child.
Therefore, some of the treatments mentioned by researchers are psychotherapy, hypnosis, art, play therapy. However, if the therapy is misdiagnosed, children can suffer from mental illness, depression, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. It is very important for every parent to notify the doctor if the child suffers from such disorders. As it is easy to treat a child than an adult. The study shows that trauma, torturing, abusing can result in MPD. Different personalities controlling the brain of patient can have a dreadful past. This can also be an influence of T.
V shows. “Psychiatrist Frank Putnam, National Institute of Mental Health, supports this view of the disorder’s etiology. Young children faced with severe sexual or physical abuse or neglect, have no effective way of fighting or avoiding the offender”(Muller Robert T). Frank Putnam from the national institute of mental health, supports that young children can easily face physical and sexual abuse. As a child it is not easy to escape the situation. Therefore, the child tries to spilt the mind, as it feels relaxed and protected. If a child experiences a trauma. It can give rise to sleep disturbances, cognitive and personal behavior problems.
Abuse can result into creating a world of your own. Kelly a psychologist professor, gives an example of a 6 years old playing with her doll. She tries to remove clothes and beat her. This shows that children always act and repeat what they experience. It is our duty to react and understand what kids try to imitate. This shows that how childhood experiences can attack your present. Any mental illness can be treated by loving the patient.
Hence this prove that how trauma can cause MPD. And also, why people specifically say it is related to childhood. To conclude, what we do know is multiple personality disorder is very dangerous. It should be diagnosed and must be provided with proper treatments. According to psychologist’s childhood abuse can result in multiple personality disorder. As there are no specific tests for MPD Doctors and professionals interview the patient and conclude the results. So, I hope from this paper we learn what is multiple personality and the cause behind it. I also explained some of the symptoms and treatments for multiple personality disorder in kids and adults.
By reading the paper we get the knowledge about the disorder and what are the reasons behind it. At times people were misdiagnosed and had a worst condition. It is the duty of every parent to take proper care of the child and if they complain about any abuse they go through; action must be taken immediately.
Work Cited Dryden-Edwards, MD Roxanne. “Dissociative Identity Disorder Symptoms and Treatments.”MedicineNet, Melissa Conrad, 6 June 2006, Muller, Robert T. “Understanding Dissociative Identity Disorder in Children.” Psychology Today, Sussex Publishers, 27 Dec.