Municipalsolid waste (MSW), are products invented in the 1st place by humans,in the environment, there is nothing called trash, cause the environment(recycle), the elements of it work on a harmonized way to leave nothing notused. Over population produced waste; that caused our plant to hold the morethan 30 % of its capacity, that has created in an addition of garbage inspecific places. 4 MSWmanagement needs collaboration for efficient delivery, and it plays a majorpart of the waste cycle waste composition, collection, recycling, proceeding,and disposal. The management of waste require input form economical, legal,Environmentaland governmental players. The failure of one element will cause the wholemanagement failure.
The management structure is made of different parts andeach one of them depends on the other and they are cultural, behavioral,institutional and political frameworks. These components need to work togetherto achieve management target. TheManagement of MSW is the most laborious compared to other trash types, thechallenge gets harder in the weak part of the world, the issues that causingthe poor management of the MNS are: low recycling rate, lousy treatment, oldand cheap technologies, not aware of health dangers. These factors are scaringthe poor and middle-income nations; because there will no control between theurban and rural without proper planning. Theproduce of the MNS every day is 2x109tons 5, the level produces on familyincome level, level of education, weather season, the type of the place thatthe family stays in and waste collection system. The economic factor plays abig part of waste generating; the higher financial status nations have amassive MSW amount 6.
Thecomposition of MSW is different from house to other. It shows that the lowerincome households generate more organic food waste, the significant amount ofnatural waste was recorded in the rural areas. Because most of the rich peopleeat processed food, Urban regions recorded big amount of MSW such as (plastic,glass, metal, paper). The organic waste could be used to make a cheapfertilizer for low-income nations; recycling mostly depends on MSW. Theefficiency of waste management is linked to the waste collection coverage whichrelies on the wealth of the country, in the developed nations waste collection andtransport take the most significant portion of the waste collection cost (fig.1).
MSWtreatment and disposal depends on the waste quality, rich countries can affordthe perfect technology, but most developed nations still depend on landfills,junk dumps are still prevalent in most of the Asian and African countries,these uncontrolled discharges, cause various soil and water contaminationdisasters. Sanitary landfills are found on the developed nations such asBolivia, Brazil, Peru, and Mexico. These are engineered landfills where wasteis frequently packed on layers with proper landfills cover 7. MNSmanagement needs significant attention from the governments, because it is oneof the three primary sources of environmental breakdowns on the Asian nationsand most of the world can’t afford the high-end technology to sort the wasteperhaps no technology could sort or manage the waste in a proper way. Orbitaldebris Onthe 10th of February 2009, at 790km above the ground over Siberia, twosatellites crashed into each other with the velocity of 11km/s 8, making 2000fragment bigger than 10cm and many smaller chunks. In 1997 iridium 33 waslaunched, it was one of the 66 satellite that provides voice and data servicesall around the world, the other spacecraft was cosmos 22521, a decommissionedcommunication satellite launched in 1993 by the Commonwealth of independentstates (Russia), this was a significant event in the orbital debris history,because it was the first accident between two large satellites.
Earth-orbitingobjects are essential for every one of us; we depend on this objects in oureveryday life, like the weather forecast, communication, security andscientific research satellites. Even tiny space debris particles could harm ordestroy these satellites or any spacecraft because this orbital debris couldreach 11km/s in low earth orbit (LEO). The most trusted sources about the growth ofthe orbital debris population by the catalog of artificial orbiting objectsmaintained by the U.S Strategic Command’s (USSTRAT-COM) and Space SurveillanceNetwork (SSN) in the 1st of January 2010, was tracking actively nearly 21,000artificial objects at an altitude of 40,000 km from earth surface, thenumerical measurements show that there are additional 500,000 debris between1-10cm diameter and a million debris smaller than 1cm. These tracked objectsinclude functional spacecraft and retired spaceships, rockets and debris fromdifferent sources. Any object not doing the thing is designed for is debris, includingupper stages that have delivered their spacecraft’s and no longer operational,of the 21 thousand objects mentioned before less than 1000 are working shuttle.(fig.2) shows the amount of growth in the space age, based on USSTRATCOMcatalog 9.
Orbitalfragmentations are produced from accidental or massive explosions, more than5o% of the USSTRATCOM cataloged partials are fragmentation debris, Since June1961 were the first recording happened more than 190 satellites breakups, aswell most of fragmentations had been the result of huge explosion from somesorts of energy for example: batteries and pressed gasses. These explosions producevery few long living debris and this don’t play a major factor in the long-termspace debris problem. Collisions created big debris clouds including themassive orbital debris producing event, the fengyun-1c ASAT test (table 1)shows the biggest space changing events. Mission-relateddebris are object disposed of during satellite delivering or operations,including lens caps, separation and packing devices and some object werediscarded in human activities most of the missions have small amount of thisdebris by the awareness of the debris environmental issues the space agenciesreduced the amount debris from this kind of missions.