MOTIVATION,HISTORY AND APPLICATION OF MODELLING AND SIMULATIONDEFINITIONModelling-A process of creating amock-up of something to be made.Simulation- The use of computer aidedsoftware for testing and understanding how a system under development willbehave in the real world.Modelling and simulationis a discipline for coming up with a level of comprehending the behavior ofpart of the system and/or system as a whole.Models are used extensively to aid in understanding the real system at aparticular point in time or space.

HISTORYComputer simulation dates back to theWorld War II era. Mathematicians Jon Von Neumann and Stanislaw Ulam can becredited with having made a breakthrough during their study of the behaviour ofa neutron. The Roulette wheel technique was suggested by the two and became successfulfix to the problem; this became prominent and found variable v     applications in the business industry. After WorldWar II new technologies were implemented for military purposes during the war.In the late 1940s and early 1950s both analog and digital computers started wereused in organization.Computer simulation was not very popularin the 1950s as many skilled personnel were needed leading to training costs.

Duringthe 1960s program and data were  keyedinto  a computer in batches using punchedcards. Data was taken on forms and keypunched while data processors developedthe programs. IBM provided thesoftware and hardware that were able to model, simulate the problem and outputsolutions in six weeks. During thelate 1980s programs like SIMANIV and CINEMAIV were developed which aided insimulation and animation. Simulation as a means became deceptivearound the middle 1990s. Big corporations encountered difficulties when it cameto translating the entire plant into a mixture flow-shop where only one unitwould be sent to the next operation as soon as it was accomplished at the existingtask.

One plain arrangement for this modification was the effect on finishedgoods inventory. Experiments were performed by using the simulation program codedin GPSS/ PC. The complete package took a month to process using the new tool ofsimulation.The results of the this experiments  were progressive with the eventual transformationof the entire plant to a flow-shop environment as compared to the innovativebatch environment.IMPORTANCEOF MODELLING AND SIMULATIONCURBINGOF RISKS IN EXPERIMENTS-Most of theexperiments that are carried out in the engineering field can result in a greatdeal of damage. The use of simulation ensures that this instance of causingdamage to people is avoided. For example in pilot- training no real airplanesare used but a computer simulated environment is used for training.

This isimportant because it safe-guards the life of the learner and it always preventthe airplanes from being damaged. Another important example is the use ofsimulation in nuclear testing. Nuclear labs manufacture dangerous nuclearweapons that if they detonate can cause catastrophic damage to people and theenvironment. Simulation is used to test in order to ensure that the nuclearweapons do not go off unplanned. ITSAVES TIME MONEY-Building a system from scratchrequires a lot of materials and manpower, this translates to using large sumsof money in order to finance it.Modelling and simulation ensures that a systemto be created/made is just  modelledwithout actually having to build the system. It also prevents situations wherea system with wrong dimensions or ineffective is built. A great deal of time isalso conserved as construction of a new system but this is not the case withmodelling and simulation as the results and working of a system are instantly provided.

ITALLOWS TESTING OF EVERY POSSIBLE FAULT-Duringmodelling and simulation the whole part of the system is put to test to figureout how it works and to establish if it has any glitches that needs to becorrected.ITPRODUCES ACCURATE RESULTS-Modelling ensures thataccurate data is fed into the system which in turn is simulated to produceaccurate output. Simulation produces perfect results because there are nooutside disturbances or perturbations.IDENTIFIESTHE STRENGTH AND WEAKNESS OF A SYSTEM-Theproposed system is put under test to investigate if it achieves the task thatit is being designed for. This ensures that a system’s strength and itsshortcomings are put to the test and if possible rectification is made to thesystem.APPLICATIONSOF MODELLING AND SIMULATIONSIMULATIONIN SCIENC- Models are used to signify the actualsystems through either physical replica on a small scale, or as precise modelswhich facilitate dynamics of the system to be accessible in method of asimulation.

This brings about the possibility of exploring system behaviour inan articulated manner; it is usually either impossible or too hazardous in thereal world.WEATHERFORECASTING-Weather forecast is prepared by gatheringas much data as possible about the existing state of the atmosphere(particularly the wind, temperature and humidity) and using the knowledge ofatmospheric processes (through meteorology) to decide how the atmosphere progressesin the future. Duringthe period of data assimilation process, information retrieved from theinterpretations is used in combination with a numerical model’s most currentforecast for the time that observations were made to create the meteorologicalanalysis.Mathematical weather forecast models are computer simulations of theatmosphere.PILOT TRAINING-A flight simulator a device calleda flight simulator is used extensively for pilot prospect. The simulatortheatrically re-creates aircraft  and the environment in which it issupposed to fly in for pilot exercise, design, or other purposes.

It has aalthe equipments and equations that rule how an aircraft operates from taking offto landing, and how the exterior factors such as turbulence, air density, wind shear,precipitation and cloud affects the aircraft. The training is pre-requisite forbeing a pilot and it aid in identifying if an individual can be a pilot.GAMESSIMULATION-Simulation has aided in creating interactivegames that creates environment that is close to the real life. A computer simulated game tries toreproduce actions from real life for purposes of training individuals ordesigning improved for human improvement.REFERENCES(INTRODUCING TO MODELLING AND SIMULATION, 2008)(Averill, 2010)(APPLICATIONS OF MODELLING AND SIMULATION, 2016)      


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