MOTIVATIONFOR TOPIC CHOSEN  We may not realize it, but International Relations play amassive part in our day to day lives. From the availability of products to thepresence of peace in our society, it all boils down to the relationship betweencountries. A country with poor relations cannot provide it’s populationadequate means to gain a high standard of living, due to the lack of resourcescaused by poor international relations. A prime example of this situation isNorth Korea, whose population is unable to have any sort of freedom to expressitself. For the purpose of this study, I was intrigued to find outinteresting facts between two prominent countries in the world, namely Indiaand USA. India and USA have usually had one of the most stable relationships,except for a few years in the 20th century.

One of the most uniquefacts about this relationship is that USA is the world’s oldest constitutionalrepublic and India is the world’s largest republic, at present. Increase in bilateral trade & investment, cooperation on global securitymatters, India’s inclusion in decision-making on matters of global governance (United Nations Security Council), added representation intrade & investment forums, admission into multilateral export controlregimes (Nuclear Suppliers Group, Australia Group)and joint-manufacturing through technology sharing arrangements have alsoplayed a key part and a measure of speed and advancement on the path to closerUS-India relations. In thispaper, we will dive deeper into the relations between the two countries toprovide an understanding to the readers about the various things that affectinternational relations, as well as come up with solutions in order to ensurethe stability and growth of these relations.     ORIGIN AND NATURE   During the days of British Raj, India and USA did not have alot of interaction, and hence, they didn’t have much of a relationship. However,things started to change when World War II entered the picture. In the waragainst Japan, India became the main base for the American China Burma IndiaTheater (CBI). Serious tension erupted when President Franklin D. Rooseveltdemanded that India should be given freedom.

This demand was immediatelyrejected by Prime Minister Winston Churchill, who even threatened to resign ifRoosevelt didn’t back out of his demand.  Post independence, India and USA didn’t have the best ofrelations. This was mainly due to USA’s closeness with India’s rival, Pakistan.Pakistan was part of the US-led made Western Bloc. Furthermore, during the coldwar, India adopted a non-alignment policy, meaning it will be a neutralthroughout the war. However, Indian relations with the Soviet Union were good.

The American officials were not happy with India’s stance during the Cold war,and stated that neutrality is not an acceptable position. President JawaharlalNehru was persuaded to join the diplomatic side, but he refused. These relations took a turn in 1950, when India turned toAmerica for aid due to poor harvests in their country. For the first 12 yearspost independence, USA provided India with 1.7 billion dollars, including 931million dollars worth of food. In 1961,the US pledged $1.0 billion in development loans, in addition to $1.3 billion of free food.

 In 1959,President Dwight D. Eisenhower was the first president to visit India. In1961,  President John F. Kennedy saidthat he considered India to be an important strategic partner and counterweightto the rise of Communist China.

However, after the Kennedy assassination, Indiaand USA’s relations deteriorated slighty. Even though his successor LyndonJohnson wanted to maintain good relations with India, his main aim was tostrengthen ties with Pakistan, as well as weaken India’s growing army.  In thenext presidency, the relationship between India and USA was at its worst.President Richard Nixon established very strong ties with Pakistan, providingit with financial and military aid, whereas Indian President Indira Gandhimaintained close relations with the Soviet Union.

In the late 1970s, with theanti-Soviet Janata Partyleader Morarji Desaibecoming the Prime Minister, India improved its relations with the US, now ledby Jimmy Carter,despite the latter signing an order in 1978 barring nuclear material from beingexported to India due to India’s non-proliferation record. In1984, Atal Bihari Vajpayee was named Prime Minister. Soon after, he authorizednuclear weapon testing in Pokhran, a small town in Rajasthan. President BillClinton was strongly against this and promised sanctions. He then went on to impose economicsanctions on India, also cutting off all military and economic aid,freezing loans by American banks to state-owned Indian companies, prohibitingloans to the Indian government for all except food purchases, prohibitingAmerican aerospace technology and uranium exports to India, and requiring theUS to oppose all loan requests by India to international lending agencies.

However,these sanctions weren’t very effective . This is due to the strong economicrise India was going through at the time and its trade with the US only accountedfor a small portion of its GDP. Japan was the only nation who joined the US in imposingthese sanctions, while most other nations continued to trade with India. Thesanctions were soon lifted.

Afterward, the Clinton administration and PrimeMinister Vajpayee exchanged representatives to help rebuild relations.             LITERATURE REVIEW 1.   India US strategic relationsin the 21st century : Thestarting point of Indo-US relationship is to go back deep in the annals of thepast which has evolved and taken shape through various up and down. Thedissolution of the erstwhile Soviet Union has been an impetus for Indo-USrelations. Since the early phase of 21st century, the Indo- US strategicrelationship is evolving at greater pace.

At the bilateral level, both sideshave identified key areas of cooperation in the fields of defence, technologyand maritime and space etc. There is a good opportunity of security cooperationbetween Indo-US through strategic partnership which will also bolster theirbilateral relations. Besides, the emerging Indian market is important for theUS trade interests.

India can use the US expertise to meet its energy demandsand arms manufacturing. At the multilateral level, The US has been supportiveof India’s permanent membership in the United Nations Security Council and fourexport control regime. Therefore, we can say that Modi-Trump will workcontinually for the interests of Indo-US relations. 2.   INDO-US RELATIONS FOR ASYMBIOTIC WORLD ORDER :3.              CURRENTSITUATIONAtpresent, India and the US share an extensive and expanding cultural, strategic,military, and economic relationship which is in the phase ofimplementing confidence building measures (CBM) to overcome the legacyof trust deficit – brought about by adversarial US foreignpolicies and multiple instances of technology denial – which haveplagued the relationship over several decades.

Unrealistic expectations afterthe conclusion of the 2008 U.S.–India Civil Nuclear Agreement (which underestimatednegative public opinion regarding the long-term viability of nuclear powergeneration and civil-society endorsement for contractual guarantees onsafeguards and liability) has given way to pragmatic realism and refocus onareas of cooperation which enjoy favorable political and electoral consensus. Keyrecent developments include the rapid growth of India’s economy, closer tiesbetween the Indian and American industries especially in the Information andcommunications technology (ICT), engineering and medical sectors, an informalalliance to manage an increasingly assertive China, robustcooperation on counter-terrorism, the deterioration of U.S.-Pakistan relations, easing of export controls overdual-use goods & technologies (99% of licenses applied for are nowapproved), and reversal of long-standing American opposition to India’sstrategic program.


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