Motivation hasbeen regarded as a precondition for success for second and foreign languagelearners, since lack of motivation candamage a language learning process to a great extent even when all the otheressential conditions are provided (Dörnyei, 2005, 2010). The attainment and motivationmay be said to have a reciprocal connection. Motivation leads to learning andin turn high achievement ( in the tests or assessment of any type) enhancesone’s motivation.
The socio- educational model (Gardner, 1985) explicitlyproposes reciprocal causation. That is, it argues that motivation influenceslanguage achievement, and that language achievement as well as experiences informal and informal language contexts influence attitudes and motivation (whichare viewed as some of the many possible non-linguistic outcomes).( as cited in Gardnerand Maclntyre, 1993) Thisrelationship between motivation and attainment has been supported by a numberof studies. The first investigation of the relationship of attitudes andmotivation to achievement in a second language was published by Gardner andLambert (1959), even though such relations had been hypothesised earlier.
TheAttitude/Motivation Test Battery (AMTB) was developed to measure a number ofattributes associated with second-language learning. In a meta-analysis investigating the relationshipof second language achievement to five attitude/motivation variables fromGardner’s socioeducational model, it was clearly demonstrated that thecorrelations between achievement and motivation are higher than those betweenother variables ( integrativeness, attitudes towards the learning situation,integrative orientation, or instrumental orientation). The model proposes thatintegrativeness and attitudes toward the learning situation are two correlatedvariables that support the individual’s motivation to learn an L2, but thatmotivation is responsible for achievement in second language.
(Masgoret andGardner, 2003). In this study, the hypothesis was tested directly by Gardner(1979), who investigated the correlations of measures of integrativeness,attitude toward the learning situation, and motivation with objective measuresof French achievement, grades in French, and speech production in two samplesof grade 11 students. He found that the correlations of motivation with allthree measures of achievement were higher than those of measures of othervariables.
(Masgoret and Gardner, 2003). Another studyenquired about the importance of the types of motivation students need to learna foreign language successfully carried out by Ali Osman in2009 (Osman,2009). The results of this studyconfirmed the importance of the integrative, instrumental, and work avoidancemotivations in second language learning. Another instance of motivation asstrong predictor of achievement in the L2 is the study carried out by Gardner,Trembley and Mesgoret (1997).
They used structural equation modeling toidentify the relative importance of a number of IDs and explored the causalrelationship between them. ( as cited in Lowie, Dijk, Chan & Verspoor, 2017). Still otherresearch has made use of laboratory techniques to investigate the causal natureof attitudes, motivation and language achievement. such research hasdemonstrated that the rate of learning French/English vocabulary pairs isfaster for those with high as opposed to low levels of AMI (Gardner, Lalonde& Moorcroft, 1985) as well as integrative motivation (Gardner , 1991).
Generallyspeaking, all of these studies found evidence that motivation or some aspect oflanguage attitudes correlated significantly with achievement in the secondlanguage. However, examination of the studies reveals many different forms ofthis relationship. There may be many reasons for this. The social contextschange, the measures are slightly different, the nature of the analyses vary,etc.In a mostinteresting study of the role of attitudes and motivation in second-languagestudy, Kraemer (1990) investigated Israeli Jewish students studying eitherArabic or French as a foreign language. She too made use of causal modelling tolink language attitudes, motivation, and indices of proficiency in the otherlanguage. She also included other variables, such as social/politicalattitudes, political optimism, national security orientation, etc., that werenecess- ary to reflect the socio-cultural setting there.
Similar causal modelswere obtained for both students of Arabic and French. Motivation was found tobe a central mediator in the prediction of language achievement, but as mightbe expected in this context, integrative attitudes were not significantcontributors to motivation. (as cited in Gardner and Maclntyre, 1993)