Motivationfor choosing this topicTwo-sided relations between Sri Lanka and its northern neighbor-India-have customarily beenbasic for the two nations. The ramifications of such a nearby nearness is that, advancements in every nationhave bearing on the other.
The two India’s and Sri Lanka’s remote approachself-assuredness, fuelled by household dynamism and outer impact, influences numerous to trustthat the above factors impact and drive their relationship. The “frivolouslegislative issues” in Tamil Nadu are inseparably laced with the ethnicclash of Sri Lanka. Notwithstanding India’s advantage in South Asia as aprovincial power, the ‘overwhelming weight’ impact of Tamil Nadu over SriLanka’s ethnic clash is by and large thought about a basic factor in India’srespective relations with Sri Lanka. From Sri Lanka’s viewpoint, the Tamil Nadulocal legislative issues have unduly impacted India’s activities on Sri Lankaand on the Lankan Tamil issue in a basic way. In opposite, from the Indianperspective of Sri Lanka’s outer relations – especially with China and Pakistanare a vital worry for India as the local power in adjusting its reciprocalrelations to Sri Lanka.
Sri Lanka’s geo-key area made tension Indian security onaccount of the likelihood of the inclusion of outer powers with Sri Lankaagainst India’s vital and security interests. New Delhi sees that nearness of anyouter powers in the Island country can posture a genuine risk to the securityof India and in addition to local steadiness. The exploration issue of theexamination is to analyze why local and outside components have had changedimpact on the India – Sri Lanka two-sided relations. Understanding “why”will prompt decide the shapes of the discretionary and different reactionsrequired to keep up the relationship in a positive balance. Additionally theexamination will concentrate on whether unfriendliness between two will help insettling their security concern and vital enthusiasm for the area? Theexamination will look at the working theorythat the real determinant influencing India – Sri Lanka relations is thesecurity and vital impulses of Colombo and New Delhi.
LITERATUREREVIEW1. Priyadarshana, P.N.
, 2017. Reflection on the Great PowerPolitics in Sri Lankan Foreign Policy: Special Reference to China IndiaRivalry. 1st International Studies Students’ Research Symposium-2017 (ISSRS2017), Department of International Studies, Faculty of Social Sciences,University of Kelaniya, Sri Lanka.. Being a little country Sri Lankahas since quite a while ago attempted to balance its intense neighbor India.
This was frequently done by acquiring powers from outside of the locale so itcan satisfy its financial and security needs without bowing to India’s will.Subsequently, China’s association in Sri Lanka has been progressivelysubstantial since late years. Alongside the progressive change of energy to theAsian landmass Sri Lanka’s vital significance has been upgraded while expandingthe interests of outside forces in the island, particularly China. Hence thecurrent geo-political tussles over Sri Lanka amongst India and China haveconcentrated on setting up control focuses in the island country. 2. Malik, H.Y.
, 2015. Geo-Political Significance of the IndianOcean Archipelago for China 1. Quarterly Journal of Chinese Studies, 3(4), p.52.After Sirisena was elected president, he promised to honorthe “100-day Program of Reform” and pursued balancing diplomacy in its foreignpolicy.
In the internal and external environment of the development of Sino-SriLanka relations there emerged some factors which are unfavorable to China.However, China’s promotion of implementing the initiative on the reconstructionof the “21st Century Maritime Silk Road” is in line with the developmentstrategy of Sri Lanka, so Sino-Sri Lankan relations are facing importantopportunities for development. China and Sri Lanka have made steady progress inpolitical mutual trust, strengthened economic and trade ties, achieved rapiddevelopment in cultural exchanges and signed many legal framework documents onbilateral relations, which has laid a good foundation for the futuredevelopment of the bilateral ties 3. Nath, U.,2017. Geopolitics of the 21st Century and Indian Ocean–Imperatives for India. IUP Journal of InternationalRelations, 11(3).The Indian Ocean Rim (IOR) has beena zone of human interactions.
For the past seven and a half millennia, thisOcean has been a convergence point of most Asian countries since it presenteditself as a vital transit route among the countries of Asia and the Pacific,Africa, and Europe. It is only in the recent human history (between 1600 and1800 CE) that the European role in the Indian Ocean became dominant. However,during the last century and half, other ocean rims of the likes of the Atlanticand the Pacific rose in importance due to the growing economic clout ofcountries like the USA, Russia, Japan and China 4. Dar,A.
I., 2017. GEOPOLITICS AND INDIA’S REGIONAL AMBITIONS IN SOUTH ASIA: A REALISTSNAPSHOT. International Education and Research Journal, 3(7). Statesoperating in anarchy according to Realism are driven by their national interestto survive.
The best way to survive is to dominate the region thereby reducingthe chances of being vulnerable. Geopolitics of a region offers vitalincentives for the States to take advantage in their favor to boost their powerwhich is a prerequisite as per realism to guarantee their security andsurvival. 5. Guha, M.
, 2015. ForcedMigration of the Tamils: India versus Sri Lanka. India Quarterly, 71(1), pp.53-66.
International relations and domestic politics areinterlinked. States do not exist in a vacuum. States are unable to makepolicies without keeping in mind the intricacies of the environment in whichthey exist. The influence of domestic policy on international relations andvice versa has become even more crucial in the twenty-first century. Relationsbetween neighbouring states have become so complicated with increasingpolitical and economic globalisation that each stateregards international influences to be having a lot of significance for itsdomestic policies.
ORIGINAND NATUREIndia is Sri Lanka’s nearest neighbour with apopulation of 1.4 billion and a country with nearly fifty times the scale of SriLanka and her influence within the fields of politics and other forms has formedthe political dynamics of SriLanka. the connection between the 2 countries is morethan a pair of, 500 years previous and each side have designed upon a strongand important relationship in cultural, non secular and linguistic spheres. Indiaand country got independence from British rulers in 1947 and 1948 severally. Indiaand Sri Lanka share common values and a governance system. Since independenceeach countries have followed the same non aligned policy throughout the time ofconflict. There are several factors that influence the state behaviour of Indiaand Sri Lanka in their bilateral relations. In contemporary dynamics, thepolitics of Tamil Nadu, which entwined with the ethnic drawback in Sri Lanka isthat the most crucial domestic issue that manipulates the state behaviourtowards one another in their relationship.
The growing Chinese influence in SriLanka is that the most important external issue that’s moving every other’s relations.Thealmost three-decade long armed clash between Sri Lankan powers and the LTTEarrived at an end in May 2009. Over the span of the contention, India bolsteredthe privilege of the Government of Sri Lanka to act against fear basedoppressor powers. In the meantime, it passed on its profound worry at thepredicament of the for the most part Tamil non military personnel populace,underscoring that their rights and welfare ought not get enmeshed in dangersagainst the LTTE.The requirement for national compromise through a politicalsettlement of the ethnic issue has been emphasized by India at the largestamounts. India’s reliable position is supportive of a arranged politicalsettlement, which is worthy to all groups inside the structure of an assembledSri Lanka and which is reliable with vote based system, pluralism and regardfor human rights. CURRENT SITUATIONPoliticalRelations President Maithripala Sirisena was elected as thenew President of Sri Lanka in the presidential election held on January 8,2015. He succeeded former President Mahinda Rajapaksa.
On the same day, Mr.Ranil Wickremesing he was also sworn in as the new Prime Minister of Sri Lankaon January 9, 2015. Political relations between the two countries have beenmarked by high-level exchanges of visits at regular intervals. PresidentSirisena visited India on a four-day starting 15 February 2015. Sri LankanForeign Minister Mangala Samaraweera visited New Delhi in January 2015 on hisfirst overseas official visit. Earlier, President Mahinda Rajapaksa travelledto New Delhi in May 2014 to attend the swearing-in ceremony of Prime MinisterModi and visited Tirupati in December 2014. Then Prime Minister Mr. D.
M.Jayaratne attended the 19th Convocation ceremony of Manipal University inNovember 2014. The Sri Lankan Defence Secretary travelled to Indiain October 2014 and also visited India earlier, in March 2014, to attendNSA–Level Trilateral Meeting on Maritime Security Cooperation. Prime MinisterNarendra Modi visited Sri Lanka on 13-14 March, 2015. He also travelled toAnuradhapura, Talaimannar, and Jaffna. External Affairs Minister Ms.
SushmaSwaraj was in Colombo on 6-7 March to prepare for Prime Minister’s visit.Former President Dr. Abdul Kalam visited Sri Lanka from 25-27 June 2015 toparticipate in the “International Energy Symposium titled Energy Challenges inthe Knowledge Economy”. National Security Advisor of India, Mr. Ajit Doval,visited Sri Lanka in NovemberDecember 2014 to participate in the annualInternational Maritime Conference ‘Galle Dialogue’.
His visit was preceded bythat of Defence Secretary Mr. R. K.
Mathur who visited Sri Lanka in October2014 to participate in the second Annual Defence Dialogue (ADD). CommerceSecretary Shri Rajeev Kher visited Sri Lanka on March 4, 2015 for the thirdround of Commerce Secretary level interactions. Then ExternalAffairs Minister of India Shri Salman Khurshid, visited Sri Lanka in Octoberand in November 2013. External Affairs Minister Ms. Sushma Swaraj led a12-member Parliamentary delegation to Sri Lanka from in April 2012 as Leader ofOpposition in the Lok Sabha. CommercialRelations Sri Lanka haslong been a priority destination for direct investment from India.
Sri Lanka isIndia’s second largest trading partner in SAARC. India in turn is Sri Lanka’slargest trade partner globally. Trade between the two countries grewparticularly rapidly after the entry into force of the India-Sri Lanka FreeTrade Agreement in March 2000. According to Sri Lankan Customs, bilateral tradein 2014 amounted to US $ 4.6 billion, achieving a growth of 23.37% compared to2013. Exports from India to Sri Lanka in 2014 were US$ 3977 million, whileexports from Sri Lanka to India were US $ 625 million. India is among the topfour investors in Sri Lanka with cumulative investments of over US$ 1 billionsince 2003.
The investments are in diverse areas includingpetroleum retail, IT, financial services, real estate, telecommunication,hospitality & tourism, banking and food processing (tea & fruitjuices), metal industries, tires, cement, glass manufacturing, andinfrastructure development (railway, power, water supply). A number of newinvestments from Indian companies are in the pipeline or under implementation.Notable among them are proposals of Shree Renuka Sugar to set up a sugarrefining plant at Hambantota (US $ 220 million), South City, Kolkota for realestate development in Colombo (US $ 400 million), Tata Housing Slave IslandDevelopment project along with Urban Development Authority of Sri Lanka (US $430 million), ‘Colombo One’ project of ITC Ltd. (ITC has committed aninvestment of US$ 300 million, augmenting the earlier committed US 140million). Dabur has already set up a fruit juice manufacturing plant (US$ 17million) in May 2013.
On the other hand, the last few years have alsowitnessed an increasing trend of Sri Lankan investments into India. Significantexamples include Brandix (about US$ 1 billion to set up a garment city inVishakapatnam), MAS holdings, John Keels, Hayleys, and Aitken Spence (Hotels),apart from other investments in the freight servicing and logistics sector. LESSONSLEARNED· Domestic factors influencing State behaviour· Influences of external factors on Indo-Srilankan relationship· The effect of China Factor on Indo-Srilankan relationship· The String Of Pearls Concept· Maintaining equilibrium RECOMMENDATIONS FOR FUTUREWith the new government in SriLanka, it is essential to discover balance in the Chinese factor.
On one handChina is critical to Sri Lanka as it is the quickest developing significanteconomy on the planet, where it will be the fundamental stimulus for givingtruly necessary advancement help to the nation, yet then again she has toadjust her ‘enormous sibling’ neighbor. The fragile exercise in careful controlis unequivocal for island country with respect to the severe encounter shepicked up in the 1980s which prompted the notorious Indian intercession in thenation. In this foundation, as contended by Srinivasan,2014 Sri Lanka must keepIndia routinely educated with a specific end goal to mollify key fears. AsIndia is definitely the most significant respective accomplice of Sri Lanka,she is geo-politically snared in a changeless association with India which mustbe commonly acknowledged as an irreversible component of remote strategy of thenation. Then again India needs to see needs of its neighbors on the way toadvancement. The abundance of China is essential to Sri Lanka and additionallyit is imperative to India as the two nations are looking for fast improvement.
In this respect, one additionally needs to investigate the United States ‘Pearl necklace hypothesis must beseen with mind what’s more, doubt since they have their own agnedas. In thisfoundation, interchanges with each other at largest amounts of approachcreators and common trust of each other are the doable answers for balance onoutside impacts in their two-sided relations. As contended by ‘The Island’ 2013absence of realism and convenience in reciprocal cooperations ought to be supplantedby straight to the point discourse between political pioneers and differentquestioners on either side, along these lines dispensing with open doors fornegative political arrangement by parties with personal stakes and hawkishpeople.
The antagonistic components of the relationship that have risen, everyonce in a while, ought to be supplanted with shared trust, transparency andcomprehension of the disagreeable issues included. The opportunity has alreadycome and gone to reset IndoLanka relations. REFERENCES Daily News. (2015) China proposestriangular partnership with India, Sri Lanka .
February 19th. Global Security (2015). Military:India Sri Lanka Relations. Available at:http://www.globalsecurity.org/military/world/srilanka/forrel-india.htmAccessed 30 May 2015.
Hariharan, R. 2013 ‘China’sStrategic Presence in Sri Lanka’, Colombo Telegraph, 1 September. Availableat:https://www.colombotelegraph.com/index.php/chinas-strategic-presence-in-sri-lanka/.
30 May 2015. Jayarathna, Y.N. (2015) ‘The”String of Pearls” Syndrome; Understanding the Realities: The Case of SriLanka’ In: Fernando, S. et al.
eds. United States-China-India StrategicTriangle in the Indian Ocean Region: Challenges and Opportunities. New Delhi :KW Publishers. The Island. (2013) Resetting India Sri LankaRelations: Report of the Indo-Lanka Joint Study Group .Jan 23rd.