for choosing this topic

Two-sided relations between Sri Lanka and its  northern neighbor-India-have customarily been
basic for the two nations. The ramifications of such a nearby  nearness is that, advancements in every nation
have bearing on the other. The two India’s and Sri Lanka’s remote approach
self-assuredness, fuelled by household dynamism and  outer impact, influences numerous to trust
that the above factors impact and drive their relationship. The “frivolous
legislative issues” in Tamil Nadu are inseparably laced with the ethnic
clash of Sri Lanka. Notwithstanding India’s advantage in South Asia as a
provincial power, the ‘overwhelming weight’ impact of Tamil Nadu over Sri
Lanka’s ethnic clash is by and large thought about a basic factor in India’s
respective relations with Sri Lanka. From Sri Lanka’s viewpoint, the Tamil Nadu
local legislative issues have unduly impacted India’s activities on Sri Lanka
and on the Lankan Tamil issue in a basic way. In opposite, from the Indian
perspective of Sri Lanka’s outer relations – especially with China and Pakistan
are a vital worry for India as the local power in adjusting its reciprocal
relations to Sri Lanka. Sri Lanka’s geo-key area made tension Indian security on
account of the likelihood of the inclusion of outer powers with Sri Lanka
against India’s vital and security interests. New Delhi sees that nearness of any
outer powers in the Island country can posture a genuine risk to the security
of India and in addition to local steadiness. The exploration issue of the
examination is to analyze why local and outside components have had changed
impact on the India – Sri Lanka two-sided relations. Understanding “why”
will prompt decide the shapes of the discretionary and different reactions
required to keep up the relationship in a positive balance. Additionally the
examination will concentrate on whether unfriendliness between two will help in
settling their security concern and vital enthusiasm for the area? The
examination will look at the working  theory
that the real determinant influencing India – Sri Lanka relations is the
security and vital impulses of Colombo and New Delhi.

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1.      Priyadarshana, P.N., 2017. Reflection on the Great Power
Politics in Sri Lankan Foreign Policy: Special Reference to China India
Rivalry. 1st International Studies Students’ Research Symposium-2017 (ISSRS
2017), Department of International Studies, Faculty of Social Sciences,
University of Kelaniya, Sri Lanka..  

Being a little country Sri Lanka
has since quite a while ago attempted to balance its intense neighbor India.
This was frequently done by acquiring powers from outside of the locale so it
can satisfy its financial and security needs without bowing to India’s will.
Subsequently, China’s association in Sri Lanka has been progressively
substantial since late years. Alongside the progressive change of energy to the
Asian landmass Sri Lanka’s vital significance has been upgraded while expanding
the interests of outside forces in the island, particularly China. Hence the
current geo-political tussles over Sri Lanka amongst India and China have
concentrated on setting up control focuses in the island country.


2.      Malik, H.Y., 2015. Geo-Political Significance of the Indian
Ocean Archipelago for China 1. Quarterly Journal of Chinese Studies, 3(4), p.52.

After Sirisena was elected president, he promised to honor
the “100-day Program of Reform” and pursued balancing diplomacy in its foreign
policy. In the internal and external environment of the development of Sino-Sri
Lanka relations there emerged some factors which are unfavorable to China.
However, China’s promotion of implementing the initiative on the reconstruction
of the “21st Century Maritime Silk Road” is in line with the development
strategy of Sri Lanka, so Sino-Sri Lankan relations are facing important
opportunities for development. China and Sri Lanka have made steady progress in
political mutual trust, strengthened economic and trade ties, achieved rapid
development in cultural exchanges and signed many legal framework documents on
bilateral relations, which has laid a good foundation for the future
development of the bilateral ties


Nath, U.,
2017. Geopolitics of the 21st Century and Indian Ocean–Imperatives for India. IUP Journal of International
Relations, 11(3).

The Indian Ocean Rim (IOR) has been
a zone of human interactions. For the past seven and a half millennia, this
Ocean has been a convergence point of most Asian countries since it presented
itself as a vital transit route among the countries of Asia and the Pacific,
Africa, and Europe. It is only in the recent human history (between 1600 and
1800 CE) that the European role in the Indian Ocean became dominant. However,
during the last century and half, other ocean rims of the likes of the Atlantic
and the Pacific rose in importance due to the growing economic clout of
countries like the USA, Russia, Japan and China



SNAPSHOT. International Education and Research Journal, 3(7).

operating in anarchy according to Realism are driven by their national interest
to survive. The best way to survive is to dominate the region thereby reducing
the chances of being vulnerable. Geopolitics of a region offers vital
incentives for the States to take advantage in their favor to boost their power
which is a prerequisite as per realism to guarantee their security and


Guha, M., 2015. Forced
Migration of the Tamils: India versus Sri Lanka. India Quarterly, 71(1), pp.53-66.

International relations and domestic politics are
interlinked. States do not exist in a vacuum. States are unable to make
policies without keeping in mind the intricacies of the environment in which
they exist. The influence of domestic policy on international relations and
vice versa has become even more crucial in the twenty-first century. Relations
between neighbouring states have become so complicated with increasing
political and economic globalisation that each state
regards international influences to be having a lot of significance for its
domestic policies.






























India is Sri Lanka’s nearest neighbour with a
population of 1.4 billion and a country with nearly fifty times the scale of Sri
Lanka and her influence within the fields of politics and other forms has formed
the political dynamics of SriLanka. the connection between the 2 countries is more
than a pair of, 500 years previous and each side have designed upon a strong
and important relationship in cultural, non secular and linguistic spheres. India
and country got independence from British rulers in 1947 and 1948 severally. India
and Sri Lanka share common values and a governance system. Since independence
each countries have followed the same non aligned policy throughout the time of
conflict. There are several factors that influence the state behaviour of India
and Sri Lanka in their bilateral relations. In contemporary dynamics, the
politics of Tamil Nadu, which entwined with the ethnic drawback in Sri Lanka is
that the most crucial domestic issue that manipulates the state behaviour
towards one another in their relationship. The growing Chinese influence in Sri
Lanka is that the most important external issue that’s moving every other’s relations.
almost three-decade long armed clash between Sri Lankan powers and the LTTE
arrived at an end in May 2009. Over the span of the contention, India bolstered
the privilege of the Government of Sri Lanka to act against fear based
oppressor powers. In the meantime, it passed on its profound worry at the
predicament of the for the most part Tamil non military personnel populace,
underscoring that their rights and welfare ought not get enmeshed in dangers
against the LTTE.The requirement for national compromise through a political
settlement of the ethnic issue has been emphasized by India at the largest
amounts. India’s reliable position is supportive of a arranged political
settlement, which is worthy to all groups inside the structure of an assembled
Sri Lanka and which is reliable with vote based system, pluralism and regard
for human rights.




















President Maithripala Sirisena was elected as the
new President of Sri Lanka in the presidential election held on January 8,
2015. He succeeded former President Mahinda Rajapaksa. On the same day, Mr.
Ranil Wickremesing he was also sworn in as the new Prime Minister of Sri Lanka
on January 9, 2015. Political relations between the two countries have been
marked by high-level exchanges of visits at regular intervals. President
Sirisena visited India on a four-day starting 15 February 2015. Sri Lankan
Foreign Minister Mangala Samaraweera visited New Delhi in January 2015 on his
first overseas official visit. Earlier, President Mahinda Rajapaksa travelled
to New Delhi in May 2014 to attend the swearing-in ceremony of Prime Minister
Modi and visited Tirupati in December 2014. Then Prime Minister Mr. D. M.
Jayaratne attended the 19th Convocation ceremony of Manipal University in
November 2014.

The Sri Lankan Defence Secretary travelled to India
in October 2014 and also visited India earlier, in March 2014, to attend
NSA–Level Trilateral Meeting on Maritime Security Cooperation. Prime Minister
Narendra Modi visited Sri Lanka on 13-14 March, 2015. He also travelled to
Anuradhapura, Talaimannar, and Jaffna. External Affairs Minister Ms. Sushma
Swaraj was in Colombo on 6-7 March to prepare for Prime Minister’s visit.
Former President Dr. Abdul Kalam visited Sri Lanka from 25-27 June 2015 to
participate in the “International Energy Symposium titled Energy Challenges in
the Knowledge Economy”. National Security Advisor of India, Mr. Ajit Doval,
visited Sri Lanka in NovemberDecember 2014 to participate in the annual
International Maritime Conference ‘Galle Dialogue’. His visit was preceded by
that of Defence Secretary Mr. R. K. Mathur who visited Sri Lanka in October
2014 to participate in the second Annual Defence Dialogue (ADD). Commerce
Secretary Shri Rajeev Kher visited Sri Lanka on March 4, 2015 for the third
round of Commerce Secretary level interactions.

 Then External
Affairs Minister of India Shri Salman Khurshid, visited Sri Lanka in October
and in November 2013. External Affairs Minister Ms. Sushma Swaraj led a
12-member Parliamentary delegation to Sri Lanka from in April 2012 as Leader of
Opposition in the Lok Sabha.


 Sri Lanka has
long been a priority destination for direct investment from India. Sri Lanka is
India’s second largest trading partner in SAARC. India in turn is Sri Lanka’s
largest trade partner globally. Trade between the two countries grew
particularly rapidly after the entry into force of the India-Sri Lanka Free
Trade Agreement in March 2000. According to Sri Lankan Customs, bilateral trade
in 2014 amounted to US $ 4.6 billion, achieving a growth of 23.37% compared to
2013. Exports from India to Sri Lanka in 2014 were US$ 3977 million, while
exports from Sri Lanka to India were US $ 625 million. India is among the top
four investors in Sri Lanka with cumulative investments of over US$ 1 billion
since 2003.

The investments are in diverse areas including
petroleum retail, IT, financial services, real estate, telecommunication,
hospitality & tourism, banking and food processing (tea & fruit
juices), metal industries, tires, cement, glass manufacturing, and
infrastructure development (railway, power, water supply). A number of new
investments from Indian companies are in the pipeline or under implementation.
Notable among them are proposals of Shree Renuka Sugar to set up a sugar
refining plant at Hambantota (US $ 220 million), South City, Kolkota for real
estate development in Colombo (US $ 400 million), Tata Housing Slave Island
Development project along with Urban Development Authority of Sri Lanka (US $
430 million), ‘Colombo One’ project of ITC Ltd. (ITC has committed an
investment of US$ 300 million, augmenting the earlier committed US 140
million). Dabur has already set up a fruit juice manufacturing plant (US$ 17
million) in May 2013.

On the other hand, the last few years have also
witnessed an increasing trend of Sri Lankan investments into India. Significant
examples include Brandix (about US$ 1 billion to set up a garment city in
Vishakapatnam), MAS holdings, John Keels, Hayleys, and Aitken Spence (Hotels),
apart from other investments in the freight servicing and logistics sector.



Domestic factors influencing State behaviour

Influences of external factors on Indo-Srilankan relationship

The effect of China Factor on Indo-Srilankan relationship

The String Of Pearls Concept

Maintaining equilibrium


























With the new government in Sri
Lanka, it is essential to discover balance in the Chinese factor. On one hand
China is critical to Sri Lanka as it is the quickest developing significant
economy on the planet, where it will be the fundamental stimulus for giving
truly necessary advancement help to the nation, yet then again she has to
adjust her ‘enormous sibling’ neighbor. The fragile exercise in careful control
is unequivocal for island country with respect to the severe encounter she
picked up in the 1980s which prompted the notorious Indian intercession in the
nation. In this foundation, as contended by Srinivasan,2014 Sri Lanka must keep
India routinely educated with a specific end goal to mollify key fears. As
India is definitely the most significant respective accomplice of Sri Lanka,
she is geo-politically snared in a changeless association with India which must
be commonly acknowledged as an irreversible component of remote strategy of the
nation. Then again India needs to see needs of its neighbors on the way to
advancement. The abundance of China is essential to Sri Lanka and additionally
it is imperative to India as the two nations are looking for fast improvement.
In this respect, one additionally needs to investigate the United States


‘Pearl necklace hypothesis must be
seen with mind what’s more, doubt since they have their own agnedas. In this
foundation, interchanges with each other at largest amounts of approach
creators and common trust of each other are the doable answers for balance on
outside impacts in their two-sided relations.


As contended by ‘The Island’ 2013
absence of realism and convenience in reciprocal cooperations ought to be supplanted
by straight to the point discourse between political pioneers and different
questioners on either side, along these lines dispensing with open doors for
negative political arrangement by parties with personal stakes and hawkish
people. The antagonistic components of the relationship that have risen, every
once in a while, ought to be supplanted with shared trust, transparency and
comprehension of the disagreeable issues included. The opportunity has already
come and gone to reset IndoLanka relations.

















Daily News. (2015) China proposes
triangular partnership with India, Sri Lanka .February 19th.


Global Security (2015). Military:
India Sri Lanka Relations. Available at:
Accessed 30 May 2015.


Hariharan, R. 2013 ‘China’s
Strategic Presence in Sri Lanka’, Colombo Telegraph, 1 September. Available
-strategic-presence-in-sri-lanka/.30 May 2015.


Jayarathna, Y.N. (2015) ‘The
“String of Pearls” Syndrome; Understanding the Realities: The Case of Sri
Lanka’ In: Fernando, S. et al. eds. United States-China-India Strategic
Triangle in the Indian Ocean Region: Challenges and Opportunities. New Delhi :
KW Publishers.


 The Island. (2013) Resetting India Sri Lanka
Relations: Report of the Indo-Lanka Joint Study Group .Jan 23rd.


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