Moreover, coaches should take into considerations that there can be different circumstances that may limit a participant from participating or achieving goals. One of the circumstances can be disability. There are approximately 650 million disabled people globally which is about 10% of the worldwide population (Purdam et al., 2008). Under the Equality Act 2010, ”disability is when someone has a physical or mental impairment that has a ‘substantial’ and ‘long-term’ negative effect on their ability to do normal daily activities”.  Participants with disability will have their own needs and they may not have the same skills as their peers in the group.

 For example, a coach who has a visually impaired football player will have to ensure that verbal instructions are concise and consistent. This is because if the player does not understand the instructions they may not be able to participate in the session.  Another example is if a coach who has hearing impaired football player, he or she will have to provide written information and give a reasonable amount of time for the player to read the information before starting off the session. Also, the player may be able to lip-. read so the coach has to ensure to always face the player when speaking. Furthermore, Abraham (2009) explains that there are two types of coaches which are ”the innovator who is constantly searching for new knowledge and insight so that new coaching ideas can be developed” or ”the coach who uses other people’s recipes” (Abraham, 2009, p. 62). He based this on ”are you a cook or a chef” by stating that skilled chef like Jamie or Gordon have a great understanding of why certain food, spices and herbs taste they way they do and why different cooking methods can make a difference to the final flavour as well as the texture.

  Whereas, a low-level cook goes to buy a cooking book and follows the recipe to recreate the skilled chef’s dish. However, if something goes wrong in practice, the low skilled cook will be unsure what to do to fix it because they will not know the different alternatives that they can use to solve the problem. This links to coaching by the expert chef being just like the innovative coach and the cook being just like a coach who uses other coaches beliefs. Furthermore, innovative coaches constantly improve their knowledge to identify and solve problems in order to develop their players towards short, medium and long-term goals and achievements. For example, I as a coach of a talented 14 year old striker may give him or her a long-term goal to get into the profession football team.

In order for my player to achieve this, I will need to have ideas about what the striker will technically and tactically need. Also, I will have ideas about what the striker needs mentally, physically, mechanically and socially in order for him or her to make it as a country player.  Moreover, I will have ideas about the types of learning environment that I need to create in order to enable the player to achieve their personal as well as sport-specific goals.

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