Metal Nanoparticles with superiorbiocompatibility and higher surface to volume ratio are needed for theapplication from environment to biomedical field. Theunique properties of metal nanoparticles have been employed for several prospectiveapplication especially in wastewater treatment, medicine, optical, electronicstorage devices application and catalysis 1.
Iron nanoparticles include ironoxides and ZeroValent Iron (ZVI) emerges as centre of attraction because of itshigh stability and reactivity. The stable iron nanoparticles are obtained byreducing agglomeration by incorporating electrostatic repulsion, addingdetergents (or) through use of reducing agents 2.The techniques involved in the synthesisof nanoparticles involve chemical mediated synthesis, Physical aberration andGreen synthesis. From the above mentioned method, Green synthesis is found tobe the most efficient and environmental friendly. Green synthesis refers to thesynthesis of nanoparticles using plant extracts as the reducing agent.
Theplant extracts contains antioxidant compounds like reducing sugars, polyphenol,flavonoids and carotenoids. These compounds act as a supporting element toreduce the metallic salt solution into free metal ions in the nanometer rangeis generally considered as nanoparticles. Plant mediated synthesis ofnanoparticles are highly preferred because of its less toxicity.
Recently, many reports are available on thesynthesis of metal nanoparticles like iron nanoparticles from Amaranthus dubiusleaf extract 3, Iron oxide nanorods from Omani mango tree leaves4, Goldnanoparticles from Elaise guineensis5, Zerovalent iron nanoparticlesfrom Rosa damascence, Thymus vulgaris and Urtica dioica 6.Harshiny et alreported that the Fe nanoparticles were cubic and roughly spherical in shapewith lesser aggregation. The plant extract mediated synthesis possesses toxicfree products against chemical reducing agents like sodiumborohydride3.
Fazizadeh et al uses green plants in an ecofriendly manner toproduce 100nm size iron nanoparticles. The reducing agents like polyphenols,carboxylic group, proteins and organic acid plays a key role in minimizing thechance of aggregation of nanoparticles6.Zarrin Eshaghi et al succeeded in producing narrow sized magnetic nanoparticleswith supermagnetic properties and also to modify the particle surfaces for sitespecific analyte traping9. Hence our study focusses on the synthesis of ironnanoparticles using Musa acuminata pseudostem extract which is reportedfor the first time.
Musaacuminate is a species of Banana native ofsoutheast Asia. They are well known producer of edible bananas consumedby millions of people throughout the world. They belong to the family Musaceae,class- equisetopsida, Subclass-Magnoliidae, Order-Zingierales and Genus-Musa 7.Severalphysical and chemical techniques including hydrothermal synthesis, ethyleneglycol, Sodium borohydrate and citric acid has been used for the synthesis ofiron nanoparticles. Electrostatic interaction among the nanoparticles causesagglomeration which decreases their surface area 6. From the literaturereview, it is reported that Musa acuminate Pseudostem Extract MAPE contains24.
4 – 72.2 GAE/100g of total polyphenol and it also contains enzymes such aspolyphenol oxidase, monophenol monooxygenase, diphenol oxidase that convert theflavonoids to tannins which indicates that it act as a perfect reducing/cappingagent for the synthesis of iron nanoparticles8.2. Materialsand Methods: 2.1.
Preparation of Musaacuminata Pseudostem Extract MAPE: Fresh Musaacuminata Pseudostem MAP were collected from local market and thoroughlywashed with deionised water, then chopped into small pieces. They were allowedo shade dry for one week and powdered using mixer grinder. Twenty grams of MAPpowder were heated with 100mL Distilled water at 80°C for 30 minutes. TheSupernatant was filtered through a whatmann filter paper and MAP extract wascollected and stored at 4°C for further use. 2.
2. Synthesis of MAPEmediated iron nanoparticles: 50mL of 0.5M Fecl3 solution was prepared in anErlenmeyer flask and 50mL of MAP extract was added dropwise to the 0.5M Fecl3 solution with continousstirring for 120 min. The solution pH was adjusted with 0.1N Hcl/NaoH. Theyellowish solution was turned into black and precipitates were obtained withthe formation of MAPE mediated Iron nanoparticles. After the reaction completed, the black-coloredprecipitates were separated by filtration, washed with deionized water and absoluteethanol several times, and dried under vacuum at 40?C for 6 h to collect thefinal products2.
3. Characterisation of MAPE mediated Iron nanoparticles:Synthesisedsamples were subsequently analysed by Particle Size Analysis (add instrumentname), Fourier Transform Infra Red Spectroscopy, X-Ray Diffractometer, ScanningElectron Microscope and Transmission Electron Microscope.2.4.
Antibacterial Activity of MAPE mediated Ironnanoparticles: The test bacterial strains Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli were used in this study. Theantibacterial activity of MAPE mediated Iron nanoparticles was studied by Agarwell diffusion assay. The selected strains were swabbedon the surface of the sterile nutrient agar petriplates. In each petriplate,three wells (5 mm) were made, and 50 ?L of MAPE mediated Iron nanoparticles (1mg/mL), distilled water and antibiotic disc such as streptomycin for Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, Ciprofloxacin for Pseudomonas aeruginosa andCefotaxime for Escherichia coli were added.
Allthe plates were incubated at roomtemperature for 24 h and zone of inhibition was determined for each testorganisms.