MES/Q0507Storyboard Artist:UNIT 1Chapter 1: Story WritingChapter 2: Script Writing UNIT 2Chapter 1: What is Animation                  – Types of AnimationChapter 2: Principals of AnimationUNIT 3Chapter 1: What is Storyboarding                 UNIT 1CHAPTER 1   Story Writing:Before we understandhow to write a story for any Animation film/video, lets us first understand thebasic structure of a story.

STORYSTRUCTUREStory structure is about story and plot. It contains thecontent of a story and the form used to tell the story. Story refers to thedramatic action as it might be described in chronological order. Plot refers tohow the story is told. Story is about trying to determine the key conflicts,main characters, setting and events. Plot is about how, and at what stages, thekey conflicts are set up and resolved. Whenever we begin with a new story we mustdefine the foundation first so we need to follow 2 basic steps while writing astory:STEP 1: Fiction or Non fictionThe first step involves the choice thestory.

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There are 2 choices1.      Fiction: Fiction story  isderived from imagination in other words, not based strictly on history or fact.A work of fiction is created in the creative imagination ofits author. The author invents the story on his own and makes up thecharacters, the plot or storyline, the dialogue and sometimes even the setting.A fictional work does not claim to tell a true story. Instead, it immerses usin experiences that we may never have in real life, introduces us to types ofpeople we may never otherwise meet and takes us to places we may never visit in  any other way. Fiction can inspire us,intrigue us, scare us and engage us in new ideas.

             References:Mr.India(1987) ,Ra One(2011) ,Koi Mil Gaya(2003),Krish(2006)2.       Non fiction- Nonfiction stories are true stories based on actual people and events.

Non fictionstories include documentaries, biographies and stories based on history, politics,travel, education or any real world subject matter. Always beaware of the rights involved in making a movie; fictional stories grant youunrestricted access to the material because you are creating it. Non fictionalstories may require you to secure the rights to an idea. Make sure you havepermission to write about the subject matter you are writing.  References: Jodhaa akbar (2008), Gandhi (1982),  Lagaan: Once Upon aTime in     India (2001), Mughal-E-Azam (1960) STEP 2GENREA genre is a category or type of story.

Genrestypically have their own style and story structure, and although there areseveral primary categories, movies can be a mixture of two or three differentgenre.Some common genres include:·        Action                                                                                   ·        Comedy·        Crime·        Drama·        Family·        Fantasy·        Horror·        Musical·        Romance·        Romantic  comedy·        Science fiction·        Thriller·        War·        WesternWhen choosing the genre for anindependent film, be aware of the costs and the difficulties of shootingcertain genres like science fiction or westerns, for which the cost of sets, costumesand props may be prohibitive.Step 3 FORMAT Storiescan be told in many different formats, each designed for a different purpose. Themain formats include:               Animation is the process of designing, drawing, making layouts andpreparation of                   photographic sequences which are integrated in the multimedia and gamingproducts.             In other words, Animation is the simulationof movement created by displaying a series of pictures,              or frames.Cartoons on television is one example of animation.              Animation is the illusionof movement created by showing a series of still pictures in rapid                      succession. In the world of computers, graphic software like Flash,After Effects, MAYA etc.

are               used tocreate this effect.  Commercials:  Commercials are designed to advertise a product or services. Television commercials incorporate a wide range of styles, techniques, and animation narratives into 10, 15, 30 or 60 second time lengths. Commercials are a great way for filmmakers to showcase their style of storytelling and production capabilities and are among the most lucrative forms of production. 3. Documentaries- A documentary is a broad term to describe a non-fiction video production that in some way “documents” or captures reality. Documentaries are intended to study a subject, occurrence, theme or belief in an attempt to either explore the subject or arrive at a conclusion about the subject.

Documentaries can either take on an investigative approach in which the filmmaker tries to answer a question or research a subject and allow the story to unfold during the production. Documentaries can in some instances be inexpensive but time consuming to produce. 4. Feature films- The term feature film came into use to refer to the film presented in a cinema theatre. A feature film is a film (also called a movie, motion picture or just film) with a running time long enough to be considered the principal or sole film to fill a program. The majority of feature films are between 70 and 210 minutes long. The popular Bollywood films like the ‘3 Idiots’ and ‘Rang De Basanti’ are an example of the Feature Films.               Industrial /corporate videos-  Industrial/corporate video productions are typically meant for marketing  of  businesses.

              Music videos- These highly stylized promotional videos for music artist are a great way for a filmmaker to explore his creativity using any medium, any style of narrative or performance and artistic editing. 5.Short films- Ideally under 20 minutes, short films are a good way of learning the process of making a movie showcasing your talents and generating interest from investors for future projects.HOW TO WRITE A STORY:Storieshave been told a certain way throughout history. It is a language both thestoryteller and audiences agree upon. First,stories begin by establishing the characters and setting in which the storywill take place, then the problem or conflict appears. The drama of the storybegins when the main character has to figure out how to cope with or solve theproblem.

These three components are considered the basic story structure; eachcan be divided into three distinct parts, called acts. Act1Act1 is the first 30 minutes of the 120 (2 hour) film. The audience is introducedto the main characters, where the story takes place, what the story is aboutand what are the main issues.Act2 Act 2 is the next movement in the story,running an hour, from 30 to 90 minutes and begins from when the conflict isintroduced. Turningpoint – Themost important part of the second act is called the ‘turning point’, whichoccurs at the middle of the story. Act3Act3 is the last quarter of the story, running from 90-120 minutes, wherein theconflict becomes the most difficult for the character and he is forced to usehis skills, wit and ability to resolve or escape from the problem with themaximum possible risk. Thethird act ends with the conclusion of the story when the character resolves theconflict.

 Answer theFollowing Questions:Q.1 what is story and how to write a story?Q.2 What is the difference between fiction& non fictional story?Q.3 what is genre? And name any 3 genre youlike the most?Q.4 what is meant by story format?  Chapter 2Scriptwriting:Whatis scriptwriting?Once we have written the story the nextstep is to convert this story into a script that can be used to create ananimation/feature film, television production or a video game. A script is adetailed story written in a format that is easy to execute during theproduction of the film.

A script divides the story into scenes and containssuch details as the description of the scene, whether it is daytime or nightwhen the scene is taking place, whether it taking place indoors or outdoors,how many characters are there in the scene, what are they doing in the scene,the dialogues between the characters and so on. The script also describes theemotional impact of the scene; whether the characters in the scene are happy orangry or sad…So we can say that a script is a film or a television productionwritten on paper with all the relevant details.The process of writing a script is known as scriptwriting, also known as screenplay writing and the one who writes a script isknown as the Script writer. AScriptwriter works with the Director of the film/television production whiledeveloping the script.

To summarize, Script writing is the art andcraft of writing the story in a format that makes it easy to shoot it.  HOW TO WRITE A SCRIPTBefore webegin to write a script, let’s have a look at a few guidelines -Divide your Story into Scenes: Broadlyspeaking, a Scene is any action taking place in a single location; if thelocation changes, the scene changes. For example, in our story there are twocharacters (characters refer to the Actors), Ravi and Smita and they aresitting in a room talking about their school home work- this in our script isreferred to as one Scene. Now, in our story the two characters go out in thegarden to play- this in our script will be referred to as Scene 2, because thelocation has been changed from inside of a room to outdoors in a garden.

Know your audience:   Keepin mind your target audience, so that you know the level of language to beused, the complexity to be developed, etc. Is the audience composed of youngsters,adults or a mixed age group, does it comprise a general or specializedaudience, etc. This will determine your language, the references used, theregional humour etc. Know your medium:   Before you start writing your script, it isimportant to know the medium through which the script is going to be presented– whether it is being written for television or for gaming, or as an animation ora live action film. In this module, we shall focus on writing the script for ananimation film, so let’s take a look at the basic difference between a liveaction script and an animation film script.In ananimation script, the action is described in far more detail.

 You’veheard the saying, “A picture is worth a thousand words.” Well, the process isreversed for animation scriptwriters. In animation thousands of words are used todescribe a scene/picture. So that means clearly describing action sequences, visualgags, facial expressions, props and locations. That’s in addition to writingthe dialogue and indicating any special sound effects and music the sceneneeds.In liveaction film writing, details like the camera angles and shots are left to thedirector.  But in an animated script, you have more freedom to suggestdramatic or cartoony visuals.  Say a phone rings.

You might call for aSLOW ZOOM or SMASH CUT to it. Maybe the receiver JIGGLES as the phoneRINGS.  Or a loud ring might JOLT the receiver RIGHT OFF THE HOOK.

 Maybe to get someone’s attention, it might BONK him/her repeatedly overthe head.  Note that animation writers often CAPITALIZE camera moves andimportant images, sound effects and music cues, and use lots ofexclamation marks to show the level of excitement the final product is going tohave: eg.A GIANT FLYING ROBOT zooms acrossthe sky!  It EXPLODES!  KA-BOOOOOM!!!  DRAMATIC STING.                                                                       -DIALOGUE- Write like you speak:   This will make it easier for the targetaudience to relate to the script. Also, it makes the script more vibrant andinteractive, since it appears conversational. Remove the extra elements:    Extra elements likeunnecessary detailing, going out of the story line, etc. should be removed, asthey detract from the main flow of the script. This also endangers the mainelements of the script; they might get lost in all the extra things introduced.

Keep the script precise and concise. Flowery language should be avoided; itshould be kept direct as far as possible, unless the script demands otherwise.Active voice, implemented in a clear and brief manner should be preferred. Consistency:    The characters’ language, mannerisms, bodylanguage should be consistent, unless the script requires otherwise. Add Humour to the story/script:    Humour is an essential part of any animation film. Be innovativewith the story, use your imagination to create funny characters and humoroussituations, think out of the box.

In animation, we are given the freedom toplay around with unrealistic characters and situations, make use of thisfreedom to come up with your strange and funny story line.   Keep sentences short and witty:    Witty dialogues between thecharacters help in creating humour in the given scene.   Best is to keep the dialogues short butwitty and remove superfluous words and repetitions and break sentences into partswhenever possible.Effective use of silence:     It is essential to put insilence between dialogue, so as to give listeners time to process the verbalcontent and to watch what’s on the screen. Brief pauses can be put into yourscript by indicating where the dialogue should stop for a moment. Silence orpauses also give you time to accommodate a transition to a new line of thought. of a ScriptA script consists of 3 main elements:·        Location(Scene Heading)·        Action·        DialogueLocation(SceneHeading):At the beginning of each scene we must declare thelocation. We do this in the following format:(a) interior (INT.) or exterior(EXT.)? (b) a description of the location (c) is it day time of night time?INT.       St.

Xavier’s School Campus   –   DayLocation description (also known as Scene headings)are left aligned in the script. The Scene Heading tells the reader of thescript where the scene takes place. Are we indoors (INT.) or outdoors (EXT.)? Next we needto name the location, where the action takes place: school campus, living room,etc.

Lastly it includes the time of day – night, day, dusk, dawn… all the informationneeded to “set the scene”. Here are a few more examples of Scene Headings:INT.

Bedroom – morningEXT. Beach – sunsetINT. Office – night – continuous actionEXT. Highway – dawnAction:This isthe place to describe the action that precedes or follows the dialogue. It iswritten without indention below the description of the location. Actiondescribes what the characters are doing, what all ishappening on-screen.

INT.       St. Xavier’s School Campus   –   DayRAVI and SMITA enter the school campus withtwo kittens in their arms  Dialogue:When any character speaks, his or her nameappears on the line preceding the dialogue. In screenplays, the name appears ina location approximately in the centre of the line.Indented to the center of the page, the name of the character would be writtenwith capitalletters and the lines of dialogue would be under it, indentedas well.INT.       St.

Xavier’s School Campus   –   DayRAVI and SMITA enter the school campus with twokittens in their arms  RAVIAre we late?SMITANo, we are not, butwe are with the kittens!Directions for the Dialogue should be in parentheses andplaced before the desired line. Parentheses  are the additional directions give inbrackets.  INT.       St. Xavier’s School Campus       DayRAVI and SMITA enter the school campus with akitten in their arms  RAVIAre we late?SMITA(Looking at thekittens)No, we are not, butwe are with the kittens!Besides these, let’s also take a look at a fewmore points that make up a Script Format:ExtensionExtensions are technical notes placeddirectly to the right of the Character name that denotes HOW the character’svoice is heard. For example, V.

O. means ‘voiceover’.TransitionIt means the change of the scene where theaction seems to blur and refocus into another scene, and is generally used todenote a passage of time. Commonly used transitions are FADE-IN, FADE-OUT,CUT-TO etc.ShotA shot is whatever the camera sees.

Forexample, a wide shot would mean that we see every character that appears in thescene, all at once. (refer to the chapter on)https://www.wikihow.

com/Write-Movie-ScriptsAnswer thefollowing questions:Q1. What is meantby Script Writing?Q2.What are thebasic elements of a Script? Q3.How to write aScript? What is the format Scripts are written in?Q4. Explain anythree guidelines necessary to write a Script?Q5. Write a shortstory and convert it into a Script?Unit2Chapter 1What is Animation?Animation is a way ofmaking a movie from manystill images.

The images areput together one after another, and then played at a fast speed to givethe illusion of movement.Animation is arelatively new art form, and though the concept of moving images has been atheme throughout ancient civilizations, it was not until late into the 19thcentury that experimental animation truly began. Today, the industry ofanimation is booming, making up a huge commercial enterprise. However, amongindividual artists, it remains a sacred and unique form of art.

A person whomakes animations is called an animator.Types of Animation·        2D animation·        3D animation What is 2DAnimation? 2D animation is the process of generating in atwo-dimensional artistic space. 2D animation focuses on creating storyboards,characters, and backgrounds in two-dimensional environments. Usually thought ofas traditional animation, the figures can move up and down, left, and right.The 2D animation uses vector graphics and bitmap tocreate and edit the animated images and is created using the computers andsoftware programs, such as Adobe Photoshop, Flash and After Effects. 3D Animation 3D Animation is the process of generatingthree-dimensional moving images in the digital environment. It is a type ofanimation that uses computer generated images to create animated scenes.

Manipulation of 3D models or objects is carried out within the 3D software forexporting image sequences giving them the illusion of movement and animation.However, this is entirely based on the technique used for manipulating theobjects. There is a difference between 3D and 2D animation.The procedure of generating 3D is sequentiallycategorized into three main sections, and these are modeling, layout andanimation and rendering. There are several software’s available for 3d animationlike Autodesk Maya, Autodesk Max etc.

 Modeling isthe phase that describes the procedure of generating 3D objects within acertain scene. Layout and Animation phasedescribes that the process followed for animating and positioning the objectswithin a certain scene. Rendering describedthe result or output of completed computer graphics. The process of productionis completed with the careful combination of the sections mentioned above andalso some other sub-sections. Difference between 3D and 2Danimation 2D ANIMATION 3D ANIMATION ·         2D Animation means two dimensional movies. ·         3d Animation means 3 dimensional movies.

·         2D Animation is a flat animation and comprises of only X axis and Y axis.  X and Y refer horizontal and vertical (X and Y) dimensions respectively. ·         3D animation comprises of X axis, Y axis and Z axis. X, Y and Z refer to height, width and depth respectively.

·         2D animation EVERYTHING is drawn ·         3D objects, once modeled, can be treated almost as a physical object. Most of the work would be done in 3d application tools ·         “Moving the camera” in 2D means drawing everything from another angle. ·         “Moving the camera” in 3D is simply dragging it to another position to see if you like it better. ·         Adobe After Effects, Adobe Flash Professional, Motion, ToopBoom, and Anime Studio are some of commonly used software used to create 2D animation. ·         Autodesk 3Ds Max, Autodesk Maya, Cinema 4D, Houdini, ZBrush, and Blender are some of commonly used software used to create 3D animation.

  2D Animation Examples: ·         The Jungle Book ·         Tom & Jerry ·         Little Krishna     3D Animation Examples: ·         Toy Story ·         Shrek ·         The Incredible ·         Jurassic Park (Dinosaurs) ·         The Transformers (Robots)   Answer thefollowing questions:Q1. what is meant by animation?Q2. what is 2D Animation?Q3. What is 3D animation?Q4.

Name any three differences between 2Dand 3D Animation?Q5. Name any two 3D applications/softwares? 


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