Management information
system is one of the most tools in any organization, which aims to provide
reliable, accessible, accessible and understandable information in a timely
manner to the users of the systems. Management information systems assist in
automating tasks. Automation can save money, time, resources, reduce employee’s
staff and enhance organizational workflow. The use of management information
systems has become necessary for any organization to facilitate the work
procedure, improve efficiency and productivity and improve performance in
general. Moreover, the importance of management information systems comes from
the benefits that generated by these systems such as providing the useful
information in a timely manner, improved labor productivity, cost savings,
providing the information without any delays and mistakes, and improved the
management of work.

The term of management
information systems consist of three parts, to understand the meaning of these
terms must understand what the meaning of management, information and systems. Management
is to achieve organizational goals effectively and efficiently through
planning, organizing, directing and controlling. It is ability to achieve the
goals by others. Management is included as a production factor along with
machines, materials and money. According to (Hardcastle, E (2011)), data is a raw fact
and can take the form of a number or statement such as a date or a measurement.
Information is generated through the transformation of data. According to (O’Brien, (2007), information is data
that have been converted into a meaningful and useful context for specific end
users. According to (O’Brien, (2007), a system is a set
of interrelated components, with a clearly defined boundary, working together
to achieve by accepting inputs and producing outputs in an organized
transformation process. According to (Hardcastle, E (2011)), a system can be
defined as a collection of components that work together towards a common goal.
The objective of a system is to receive inputs and transform these into
outputs.

We Will Write a Custom Essay Specifically
For You For Only $13.90/page!


order now

In views of present
situation on line and system information systems are being advanced and hackers
are also trying to attack any information systems of organizations by using
many ways. That’s why organizations and companies need to think about to
improve information system protection systems and hopping that information
systems will achieve with zero threats. Five changes are of paramount
importance. They are (1) IT innovations (2) New business models (3) E-commerce
expanding (4) Management changes and (5) Changes in firms and organizations.
Management information system provide to various managers among the middle and
low level managers of the organizations. Especially, the middle level manager’s
management information system provides the organizational performance reports,
which help predicting the future performance of the organizations. To get the
maximum benefits from the information system of company, the organizations have
to exploit all its capacities information systems gain their importance by
processing data from company inputs to generate information that is useful for
managing the operations. To increase the effectiveness of the information
system, the organization can either add more data to make the information more
accurate or use the information in new ways.

The information system
is transforming business and the visible results of this include the increases
use of cell phones and wireless telecommunications devices, a massive shift
toward online information and news, booming e-commerce and internet advertising
and new federal security and accounting laws that address issues raised by
exponential growth of digital information. As a public information system,
facebook also trying to improve to protect personnel accounts in many ways.
Information systems are essential for conduction day to day business in the
most advanced countries and achieving the strategic business objectives.
E-commerce firms such as eBay, Google, Amazon and E*Trade would be nonexistent
without information systems. Some services industries such as finance, insurance
and real estate industries as well as personal services could not operate
without the information systems. The ability of a firm to use IT is becoming
intertwined with the firm’s ability to implement corporate strategy. There is a
growing interdependence between the information systems of firm and its
business capabilities. Changes in strategy, rules and business process
increasingly require changes in hardware, software databases and
telecommunications. Sometimes, what the organization would like to do depends
on what its systems will permit it to do. When organizations have been attacked
by hackers, organizations have to pay for hacker’s requirement such as millions
of dollars and also loss in business matters. That’s why organizations and
business companies are heavily reliant on information systems.

Both security and
controls are need in today’s businesses in order to safeguard information
systems. Security refers to the policies, procedures, and technical measures
used to prevent unauthorized access, alteration, theft, or physical damage to
information systems. Controls are methods, policies, and organizational
procedures that ensure safety of organization’s assets; accuracy and
reliability of its accounting records; and operational adherence to management
standards. Business,
government entity and individuals alike all have to pay careful attention to
dangers to the computers and networks. The network security threats are a
growing problem for people and organizations the world over and become worse
and multiply with every passing day. Malicious software programs are referred
to as malware and include a various threats such as computer virus, worms and
Trojan horses. Trojan horses, worms are also known as denial of service types
of attacks that are usually utilized malevolently to destroy and consume a
given network’s resources.

A computer virus is a malware type which propagates by inserting a
copy of itself into and becoming part of another program. It is spreading from
one computer to another and leaving infections as it travels. Most of the
viruses are attached to an executable file. That means the virus may exist on a
system but will not be active or able to spread until the user runs or opens
the malicious host file or program. The viral code is executed as well when the
host code is executed. Some virus overwrite other programs with copies of
themselves, which destroys the host program altogether. Virus spreads when the
software or document which are attached to it transferred from one computer to
another by using the network, disk, sharing the file or infected e-mail
attachments. If a computer may be infected, the symptoms of a computer virus
are:

·        
Slow computer performance

·        
Erratic computer

 

·        
Unexpected data loss

·        
Frequent computer crashes

 

A worm is a program that replicates itself from system to system
without the use of a host file. It is in contract to virus, which requires the
spreading of an infected host file. Generally, worms exist inside of other
files and often Word or Excel documents. There is a difference between how
worms and virus use the host file. To spread, worms either exploit vulnerability
on the target system or use some kind of social engineering to trick users into
executing them. A worm enters a computer through a vulnerability in the system
and takes advantage of file transport or information transport features on the
system.

A Trojan horse is a type of malware that is often disguised as
legitimate software. Trojans can be employed by cyber-thieves and hackers
trying to gain access to the users’ systems. The users are tricked by some form
of social engineering into loading and executing Trojans on their systems. After
it is activated, Trojans can enable cyber-criminals to spy on you, steal your
sensitive data, and gain backdoor access to your systems. A backdoor Trojan
gives malicious users remote control over the infected computer. Backdoor
Trojans are often used to unite a group of victim computers to form a botnet or
zombie network that can be used for criminal purposes. Unlike virus and worms,
Trojans do not reproduce by infecting other files nor do they self-replicate.
Trojans must spread through user interaction such as opening an e-mail
attachment or downloading and running a file from the internet. The actions
include the followings:

·        
Stealing data such as credit card data or
passwords

·        
Utilization the computer as a portion of a
botnet attack, for spamming or creating Denial of service attacks

·        
Uploading or downloading the files

·        
Software installation such as additional malware

·        
Keystroke logging

·        
Deletion or modification the files

·        
Wasting of computer storage and memory resources

·        
Viewing the screen of the user

·        
Causing the computer to crash

 

Cause of hackers
attacks, possible loss of business that means physically and mentally loss of
money, time, man power, etc. Those will be affected into the whole fleet and
also effect to their partner companies because of system disconnections. In May 2017,
many information systems department were scrambling to resolve a ransomware
attack on Window-based systems. Within 24 hours of the 1st detected attack, the major ransomware
attack that impacted an estimated 230,000 computers across 150 countries. Ransomware
is a kind of malware that limits or totally prevents users from gaining access
to the computer system either by locking some files and computer screen until a
ransom is paid. Some of the malware refers to as crypto ransomware can encrypt
some valuable files on the system till you pay the ransom fee to obtain a
decryption key. You can get ransomware from downloading an infected attachment,
clicking a link inside an e-mail or visiting the wrong website. Spyware is
similar to a Trojan horse in that users unwittingly install the product when
they install something else. A common way to become the victim of spyware is to
download certain peer to peer file swapping products that are available today.Spyware
also act as malicious software. The small programs install themselves
surreptitiously on the computers to monitor user web-surfing activity and serve
up advertising. Thousands of spyware forms have been documented. For example,
Crypto Locker, encrypts an infected the files of computer, forcing users to pay
hundreds of dollars to regain access. Crypto Locker is a malware program that
makes the rounds and is an example of a type of malware called “ransomware”. Crypto
Locker displays a ransom page telling you that you have 72 hours to pay
(usually $ 300) for the private ley which will let you unencrypt your files.
Crypto currencies are especially Bitcoins which are preferred payment method as
it is very difficult to trace. Other alternative payment methods include Amazon
gift cards and iTunes. If you do Not pay, the private key is destroyed by the
server that it is on and you have no way to unencrypt and use your files. If
you Do pay, it is been reported that the bad guys DO actually provide you with
the private key so you can get your files back.

One of the world
biggest Shipping business company Maersk line has been cyber attacked by
Ransomware also. This shipping company’s information systems have been attacked
by Ukraine hackers on June 2017 and hackers demand millions of dollars. That’s
why organizations were attacked by hackers; organization has to pay for them
and also loss in business because being during attacked organization’s
communications is disconnected via all of business groups. Cause to lose
millions of dollars for own company and effect to lost Partner Company’s
business also.

So, the organizations
should be prepared for similar attacks. The impact of these attacks has been
huge in terms of massive disruption to operations is that ransomware is one of
the cyber weapons in the attackers’ of tools. When the company is hacked with
ransomware, the company can explore the free ransomware response kit for a
suite of tools that can help. The following factors are recommended by experts
to moderate an attack:

·        
Research when the similar malwares have been
investigated by other IT teams. If it is possible to decrypt it on your
organization.

·        
Remove the infected machines form the network,
that’s why the ransomwares do not use the machine to spread throughout the
network.

·        
Decide whether or not to make an official
investigation and pay the ransom, take it as a lesson learned.

 

Some attacks are not
necessarily be successful, but when attackers do find their way inside an
organization’s systems can quickly minimize damage and restore systems before
significant harm can be caused. In order to prepare like a response,
organizations must understand how attacks can progress, decide who will carry
out which actions and practice and refine the plan. These are:

·        
Understanding the attacks

·        
Protecting against attacks

·        
Preparing for incidents

·        
Creating a response teams

·        
Testing the plan

 

In this ways,
understanding how attacks can occurs, implementing the right procedures and developing
a clear response strategy can help organizations to counteract future threats
and recover from incidents more quickly.

The ethical, social and
political issues are closely linked. The ethical, social and political issues
raised in e-commerce, provide a framework for organizing the issues, and make
recommendations for managers who are given the responsibility of operating e-commerce
companies within commonly accepted standards of appropriateness. Understanding
ethical, social and political issues in e-commerce internet and its use in
e-commerce raise pervasive ethical, social and political issues on the scale
unprecedented for computer technology. The major ethical, social and political
issues that have developed around e-commerce can be categorized into following
dimensions.

·        
Information rights and obligations

·        
Property rights and obligations

·        
Accountability and control

·        
System quality

·        
Quality of life

 

Ethics
is the principle of right and wrong that individuals, acting as free moral
agents, use to make choices to guide their behaviors. (P.Laudon,
2018 15e)

·        
General
Motors Inc (2014): Its CEO admits the firm covered up faulty ignition switches
for more than a decade resulting in the deaths of at least thirteen customers.
The firm has recalled 2.7 million cars.

·        
Barclays
Bank PLC(2012): One of the world’s largest banks admitted to manipulating its
submissions for the LIBOR benchmark interest rates in order to benefit its
trading positions and the media’s perception of the bank’s financial health.
Fined $ 160 million.

·        
Walmart
Inc. (2012): its executives in Mexico accused of paying millions in bribes to
Mexican officials in order to receive building permits. Under investigation by
the Department of Justice.

 

Information systems
raise new ethical questions because they create opportunities for intense
social change, threatening existing distributions of power, money, rights and
obligations. New kinds of crime such as business models of google, facebook and
many other sites depends on getting users’ personal information so it can be
used to market and sell them products. The ability to quickly and inexpensively
collect, maintain, manipulate and transfer data enables every individual and organization
to collect millions of personal records. When you visit a commercial site, the
chances are the site installs a little file, a ‘cookie’, on your computer’s
hard disk.

Privacy is the claim of
individuals to be left alone, free from surveillance or interference from other
individuals or organizations, including the state. (P.Laudon,
2018 15e)
Ethical issue arises from the rapid adoption of the technologies of GPS in
society. Ethical issue is the most significant of privacy. GPS can be used to
track the movement of people. GPS disregard the privacy of the individuals who
use this product. This product is currently imposed by the parents and loved
ones. Moreover, many social issues are also involved by using the GPS devices.
When you use this device, you can receive radio wave frequencies and it may
concern arise a health. Mobile phone is already alleged to cause cancer and GPS
devices will also have a similar fate. For example, department stores use the
technology to advertise products if a GPS receiver in the vicinity of their
store were detected. On an airliner cannot use most electronic devices as
navigation systems were disrupted. If GPS devices cause similar problems their
use on planes will be an issue as the technology becomes more available. By preventing
system attack, the organization should use security system and password
protection system etc and in email and gmail systems. By this way,
organizations and business companies heavily reliant on information systems.

x

Hi!
I'm Erica!

Would you like to get a custom essay? How about receiving a customized one?

Check it out