Malaysiais a country that have relatively many heritage building that have anexceptional artistic and diverse structure. Some of it already receiverecognition by United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization(UNESCO). Conservation and preservation of building is one of the method usedto protect a heritage building. Generally, conservation is a technical activitytowards historical buildings (Siti Norlizaiha Harun, 2011). Meanwhile,preservation is an activity that keep the structure of building remain intact. Architecture of house is important as itsymbolize cultural symbol and have certain heritage value in the life ofsociety.
It potrays uniqueness of traditional Malay house which have exquisitevalue as time passes. In terms of Malay house roof, it also symbolize racialorigins of certain region and state of Malay’s. As for ‘Minangkabau’ house fromNegeri Sembilan roof have structure like a bulls horn. Singgoraroof which believed origin from Southern Thailand and east coast of Malaysia byreown architecture of Malay heritage.
Clay roof tiles or better called asSinggora roof was used widely in traditional Malay house. ‘Singhora bricks’ (called by Kelantanese) orroof originates from Thailand and it tilesmade manually. Due to migration process, trading and demand by theThai communities around early 18th it became part of the Malaytraditional architecture.
It application included building roofcovers, for mosques, private home resting (gazebos) as well as palaces. Unfortunately,usage of Singgora roof declined since 1977 (Zulkarnain Hassan, 2016). Product demandstart to reduce due to quality, process making as well as cost for firing.Difficulty to obtain clay material make it more complicated. Then thecompetition over newly found material such as concrete, zinc and compositeinhibit Singgora production. Luckily, due to its aesthetic value of theSinggora roof make it still in demand primarily for traditional Malay house. Someof the example are Aryani Resort (owned by Raja Bahrin) and lots of bungalowhouse (Kemenshah Indah, Kuala Lumpur). Because of the clay use in Singgoraroof, it acquire implications in terms of conservation such as materials andfinishing.
This make some people hate the idea of using Singgora roof. This isdue to the national heritage conversation and awareness of limited resources tosupport effort in case to enlarge new alternative sources search of Singgoraroof. Substitutionprinciple is ‘authenticity in conversation’, which have four originality inbuilding, placement, architecture and building materials (Siti NorlizaihaHaron, 2010). In year 2008 to 2009 some of heritage building undergoconservation projects such as Kelantan Masjid Mulong, Kelantan and IslamicReligious Council that permanent used Singgora roof. Damage Singgora beingreplaced new Singgora or used salvage materials as an alternative.
Theenvironmental effects on material can be the problems faced for conservation ofSinggora roof. Effects such as moisture, pollution, rain, heat andmicro-organisms production known as fungus can be the threat to the appearanceof the roof. This effects may lead to Singgora roof function poorly.
Therefore,proper materials and finishes play critical role in conservation of Singgoraroof. Inthis research, the main idea is to preserve Singgora roof which was used widelybefore in Malaysia but being slowly replaced by other development of variousmaterial as time goes by as well as ensuring improvement in appearance ofmaterial. The enhancement to Singgora roof tile is important to ensure that itlast longer and durable. 1.2 Objectives1. To preserve traditional values andheritage building in Malaysia.
2. To asses mixture appearance quality thatwill cohere to originality principle of originality preservation andsustainable material. 1.3 Problem Statements Thereare few problems arise in order to helps in conservation of Malay Singgoraroof. The usage of Singgora roof slowly faded due to the quality, materialstrength, life expectancy and fungal problems. Singgora roof tiles fromdistance may look exact to fish scales arrangement. The light and porouscharacteristic possed by Singgora roof make it a good water absorbent material.
This result to naturally cool environment caused by house that use Singgoraroof. However, the thin and lightweight material of the roof make it easier tobreak if not handle properly. In addition, the hardly obtain raw material(clay) make it even harder to produce large amount of Singgora roof to fulfildemand. Then, the porous characteristics may lead to faster fungal productionbecause of it moist structure after certain period. Besidesthat, high cost and time required for the conservation of heritage building’sroof. Many process involved in order to conserve the roof such as open, treatand the re-install of the replacement. This process require a diligentcommitment in order to ensure the Singgora roof does not face any damage duringthe replacement process.
1.4 ResearchOutcome Inthis research, the idea to deliver an upgrade version or concept of Singgoraroof tiles can be seen clearly through the innovation created with aid ofcolour oxide during glazing process. Through the colour oxide addition, theproblem faced in roof especially Singgora roof tiles can be avoid. The researchobjective obtain successfully. Besides that, the long and complicated processto conserve the Singgora roof tile was made easier due glazing process. Thisprocess somehow increase the durability of the roof tiles which also make itlast longer. By the involvement of more entrepreneur in this traditional rooftiles it can increase production of more quality Singgora roof. After that, itis expectant to make Malaysian start to realise the identity and uniquecharacteristic hold by Singgora roof tiles in building architecture.
Next, fromthis research Malaysia can be promote as one of the heritage buildingdestination for those who need to learn and see the unique value embedded inMalay Traditional Roof. Therefore, Ministry of Tourism and Culture Malaysia(MOTAC) should take this advantages by encourage more entrepreneur to explorein the production of Malay Singgora roof tiles. By the entrance of tourist into our country somehow will increase theexchange rate currency value of Malaysia Ringgit. Lastly, it is hoped that this research canhelp National Heritage Department to help and preserve the findings on Singgoraroof and applied it to protect the resource of Malaysia Heritage roof for othergeneration. 3.0 MATERIALAND METHODS3.1 Material1.
Raw materials (clays)2. Grog 3. Colour oxide (copperoxide, cobalt oxide and others) 3.2 MethodologyFewmethods and procedure have been decided to carry out this research. First, theraw materials (clay) was obtained from Bachok, Kelantan.
Then the sampleexperiment retrieved being conduct at Strength Lab to obtain data of originallocal clay. Addition of potential materials into the clay done during thereplacement in roofing sheets. It is found that additional materials (grog) added to increase strength ofclay.
Pre-fired clay obtain from Singgora sheet rejection after firing processis known as grog. The material nextbeing smashed into small particle and undergo 100 meshes sieve. Material mix ofclay and grog then ready for kneading and wedging process.Afterthat, is glazing process. Glaze is layer of glass by firing process to improvestrength, durability, water resist and create colour to clay surface.
It wasapplied to inhibit production of fungus on Singgora roof tiles. The best glaze treatment for Singgora rooftiles is matt finish due to its similarity with original Singgora finished.Besides that, oxide being added in glaze.
Addition of colour on Singgora rooftiles can increase beauty view of the building. Few percentage of dye such ascobalt oxide and copper oxide is mix with composition of clay. Colours producedlike green, red, yellow and black applied to clay and being burned in roofingsheets. To get an overview of the installed roof shape, some roof arrangementin compliance with creativity design being done. 3.3 Research Flow Raw materials (clay) from Bachok, Kelantan Oxide addition in glaze to produce colour Burn in roofing sheets Clay + grog Strength Lab test Glazing process-matt finish strength treatment Smashed and undergo 100 mashes sieve Mixture (clay+grog) undergo kneading and wedging process 6.0 RESEARCHOUTCOME AND GANTT CHART6.1 Gantt Chart Year 2019 2020 Project Activities J F M A M J J A S O N D J Selection of Project Title A) Discussion with supervisor B) Collect information Literature review A) Collect information from journal, books & past thesis Writing Research Proposal A) Literature review B) Discuss with supervisor C) Gathering data information D) Submission proposal Research Proposal Presentation A) Presentation to supervisor and examiner Final Draft Proposal Submission (Chapter 1,2,3) Conducting Research Work A) Get the raw materials from Bachok, Kelantan B) Sample preparation for lab C) Lab- Strength, Glaze, colour oxide addition Data analysis Final report writing A) Discuss with supervisor B) Analysis data gathering C) Compare data obtained with previous study Final Presentation Final report submission 6.2 Milestone Start Project title selection Literature review Writing research proposal Research proposal presentation Final draft proposal submission Conducting research work Data analysis Final report writing Final presentation Final report submission Finish Jan Feb March April May June July Sep Aug Oct Nov Dec Jan