MahoganytreeThe most durable and versatile wood ismahogany due to its resistance against other insects and rot, refinements to abeautiful high gleams and a cheaper wood to use as furniture. It can be used anywhereor for anything.

Mahogany LeavesAccording to Liman (2009), the extracts fromMahogany leaves may contain active substance that can be harmful and toxic tonematodes and are potentially be used as a nematicides. The leaves can be usedas an agent to which it will be mixed with soil through tilling method or byapplying the leaves directly to the “prone” crops. The study also suggest thatthe decrease in number observed nematodes can be liable for the expansion ofgrowth of the seedlings. Such reduction means fewer disturbances to theseedlings resulting in an unconstrained growth. Mahogany SeedsAs for Dalisay (2014), every plants containtoxins with concentrations of WHO different-diff. It means that the higher theconcentration, the higher the number of toxins WHO, with regards to theinhibition of growth and the cause of death of the insects.

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The efficacy ofpesticide vegetable from plant materials has an advantage due to its activeingredients that can be harmful to pestsMahogany BarkThe study “The efficacy of combining tubertreatment with mahogany bark aqueous extracts and exposure to solar heat forthe control of potato tuber soft rot” conductedby Bdliya (2010) test the incidenceof tuber soft rot exposed to solar heat. It showed that tuber treatment withplant extract with exposure to solar heat significantly diminish the severityand incidence of tuber soft. However, tubers treated with plant extract with noexposure to solar heat obtained the highest reduction on the severity andincidence of the disease. This explains that plant extract is effective atlower temperature.Methodsof extractionAt 50 ° C, the leaves cleaned by deionizedwater, were over dried for almost 48 hours and then powdered in a grinder.

Thepowdered plant (200gm) was consecutively extracted with petroleum ether, benzene,chloroform, methanol and water (2000 ml each) abiding the increasing polarityusing Soxhlet apparatus for 24 hours at a temperature not surpassing to therespective solvent’s boiling point. Using Whatmann No. 1 filter, the attainedextracts were filtered.

Under vacuum at 40° C, it was concentrated usingarotary evaporator. The extract was powdered using Allied Frost Iypholizer at55° C under vacuum conditions and then stored in refrigerator in a small andsterile bottles (Addisu, 2018).Theleaves of Mahogany were cut into pieces and air dried for about 21-28 days thenminced into powder using electric grinder. The 285 g of milled samples weresoaked in 1200 mL, 900 mL, and 750mL analytical grade n-hexane sequentially on a magnetic stirrer.

The extractswere then filtered using filter paper or muslin cloth, after 72 hrs. The use ofrotary evaporator, concentrates the filtrates. Drying in an oven at 4° C and600 mmHg was done to eliminate the solvents (Liman 2009).To obtained constant finedust particle, the dried seeds and leaves of the desired botanicals werepulverized using micro plant grinding machine and then filtered  through a 0.

25 mm pore size mesh seize. Itwas then kept in a glass containers with screw cap, separately at roomtemperature in dark.  100 mL of waterwere mixed with the powder and then calculated by volume bases that ispowder/volume of water. Consecutively, the 10, 2, 10 and 35 g of the grindedplant material were soaked in a 100 mL of water.

After 24 hrs, each mixturewere filtered using cheese cloth (Laxmaiah, 2011)BlackBugsAccording to Laxmaiah, farmlands and ricefields are the common habitat for the Scotinpharacoarctata, commonly known as black bugs. They were common in rained andwetland area.  They emit foul odor thatcan cause itching when they come in contact with the skin. Since they are veryattracted to light, these bugs are abundant when full moon.

From the seedlingup to the maturity stage of the plants, bugs suck the sap from the panicles andmidrib leaves at the milk stage, preventing the plant from growing. Since thereare removal of a large amount of sap, the effect of toxins were introduced. Theeffect of these are; discoloration of the leaves, desiccation in the plant,dead in the upper leaves, or young leaves may fail to develop (2011).DependentVariable Mortality RateTo assess the mortality rate of the termites,the extracts of selected botanical extracts were unified in to the regime, at10, 20, 30 and 35% concentration for each extracts (of seed and leaves) withtwo controlled group which are the following; sterile water as negative andcommercial insecticide as positive control variable.

At temperature 25±3°C anda relative humidity of 60-70%, the petridishes with botanical extracts thatwere treated are strained with a filter paper, for three days. The mortalityrate was recorded during the 24 hrs interval (Fathomi, 2013). The dead and livetermites were countedand base on the equation given, percent mortality was calculated:.The study of Ojebode, the method used toapply the different treatments are spray method.

In the respective cagescontaining 10 cultured leafhoppers, 10 mL of each treatment was sprayed. Thetotal number of cultured green leafhoppers are120 including the controlvariable since there are 3 replication for each treatments. To show theeffectiveness of the plant extract, mortality rate was calculated. Throughspray method, the mortality rate of the green leafhoppers was determined afterevery 6 minutes, for a total of 30 minutes (2016). 


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