List of Tables





Table1.1 Performance Comparison of micro-strip antenna and DRA                       1

Table 5.1 Grad I Time Plan                                                                                        13

List of Figures





1.1 Radiation patterns of the cylindrical DRA and the circular

Disk micro-strip antenna                                                                                           2

Fig. 2.1 Different shapes of DRA                                                                              4

Fig. 2.2 Small MS patch antenna for 5G application                                              5

Fig. 2.3 Single band MS patch antenna for 5G wireless
application                      6

Fig. 2.4 Wide-band rectangular DRA
for wireless applications                             7

Fig. 3.1 Proposed design of system                                                                            8

Fig 3.2 Result of simulation using different feeding
lengths                                    9

of Abbreviations



CST: Computer Simulation Technology
DRA: Dielectric Resonator Antenna MSA: Micro-Strip Antenna

VNA: Vector
Network Analyzer







It is my pleasure to acknowledge the assistance of the
wonderful staff at Msa University for helping me to find many of the research
materials. Usually, I only need to send them an email for a paper, and within a
few days, the paper would be ready for my perusal. I do try to look for many of
the materials myself at the University’s library as well as discussions
regarding the thesis subject with Dr. Mohamed Ismail Ahmed who is also my project
supervisor. T.A Mohamed Sayed Zaki assisted me on using the CST which is a
finite element simulation tool. The email correspondences with Dr. Mohamed
Ismail Ahmed on the subject of Method of feeding line and techniques in the
project, was very helpful. It is also my pleasure to acknowledge the many good
professors who have taught me important concepts in electromagnetism. These
professors are Professor. Mohamed Ismail who taught me 2 semesters of graduate
Electromagnetism, and T.A Mohamed Sayed who often responded so quickly to my
questions on electromagnetism.









The world of communication is
evolving daily but with this evolution various problems start to arise. One of
these problems are in the field of radio frequency electronics precisely in the
millimeter-wave antennas which has low radiation efficiencies (less than 10
percent), low gain (less than 0 dBi), and narrowband performance.

This project’s aim is to solve these
problems by using dielectric resonator antennas (DRAs) to replace the standard
antennas specifically at millimeter-wave antennas since they don’t suffer
conduction losses and have high radiation efficiency when properly excited.
When designing the dielectric resonator, different modes can be achieved; this
results in wide impedance bandwidth in the antenna. The way that they achieve
higher order modes makes the dielectric resonator antennas electrically large compared
to its resonant frequency, resulting in a higher gain for them.

The design will be simulated on the
CST microwave studio. Then comes the fabrication of the DRA which will be
implemented using SYJ-150 precision low speed diamond saw while the measurement
of the S-parameters will be done using the Vector Network Analyzer.

Using this method, the gain and radiation efficiency can
be increased greatly while removing the conduction loss.



1.1     Problem definition

The development of 5G technologies was
started to increase data rate of wireless communication networks a 100 times
than before resulting in some severe difference in specifications such as high
bandwidth, large gain, decreased size and performance that doesn’t depend on
temperature, when designing radio frequency electronics. Multiple front-end
antenna solutions nowadays relies on MSAs, these antennas have been used for
high frequencies applications. these antennas have certain features such as
decreased size, low weight, and low cost and can easily be integrated on a
chip. On the other hand, due to conduction losses as well as dielectric substrate
materials, these antennas suffer from small radiation efficiencies (less than
10 percent), small gain (less than 0 dBi), and narrowband performance.


1.2     Applied systems

The radiation pattern as illustrated in fig.1.1 shows
that at 3-dB the angle in the electronic plane is 99° and 94°in H-plane for the
DRA whilst the angles for the micro-strip antenna are narrower at 85°for the
E-plane and70°for the H-plane. Moreover the comparison between the two antennas
shows that the radiation efficiency is much greater in the DRA than the micro-
strip antenna as shown in Table 1.1.

Table1.1 Performance Comparison of micro-strip antenna and DRA







Fig. 1.1.  cylindrical dielectric resonator antenna and  circular disk micro-strip antenna radiation

(a)&(b) H and E plane of the DRA ,  

(c)&(d) H and E plane of the MSA .



Main objectives


Lack of conduction losses is one of the basic
characteristics of DRAs. This feature makes these antennas a very good fit for
mm-wave frequencies applications. However, at millimeter wave frequencies, the
dimensions of the antenna decreases, which makes it challenging for a ceramic
based antenna design, due to its which makes it difficult to manufacture.

When designing the dielectric resonator, different modes can be achieved;
this results in wide impedance bandwidth in the antenna. The way that they
achieve higher order modes makes the dielectric resonator antennas electrically
large compared to its resonant


frequency, resulting in a higher gain for them .This approach can be
applied to be used in single element or  antenna arrays.






The DRA will be fabricated using a SYJ-150 precision low
speed diamond saw while the software design will be made using the CST
microwave studio.





1.5     Report organization

After an introduction to the thesis in Chapter1, a
review of literatures including the previous and current alternative systems is
presented in Chapter 2.

In Chapter 3, proposed system’s main features,
dimensions, and the testing method are explained.

In Chapter 4, the time plan is explained. In Chapter 5, the main




2.1     History


Review of Literatures


The basic design of any dielectric resonator antenna is made
up of a dielectric resonator whose dielectric constant varies from 2 to 100 on
the upper side of a dielectric substrate and an electric conductor on the
substrate’s lower side. The dielectric resonator is mostly used in a
rectangular shape since it is easier to design and analyze than the other basic
shapes (i.e. circular and triangular.
The DRA has many advantages over the micro-strip antenna the first of which is
it’s wider bandwidth since the whole DRA radiates, other advantages of the DRA
include it’s avoidance of surface wave, higher radiation efficiency and higher
gain. Conversely there are certain similarities in the characteristics of DRA
and micro-strip antenna for instance increasing the dielectric constant
decreases their size.

Fig 2.1 Different shapes of DRA

Wireless communications have gone through major improvements
specifically the 5G technology which has increased the data rate a 100 times
more than before. The use of micro- strip antennas has been proposed for the
mm-wave, but these antennas face some problems like conduction losses, low
efficiency and gain and narrowband behavior DRAs don’t suffer these problems
which makes them a prime candidate to replace conventional antennas especially
at mm-wave frequencies. 5



2.1.1 The name of previous system#1

The small micro-strip patch antenna for 5G application
shown in fig2.2 has a compact size of 20mm * 20mm * 1.6mm. The resonance
frequency for this device is 10.15 GHz. The system has a low gain of 4.46 dBi

Fig2.2 Small
micro-strip patch antenna for 5G application

2.1.2 The name of previous system#2

The Single Band Micro-Strip Patch
Antenna shown in fig2.3 is suitable for the mm- wave frequency and is made of
H-slot and E-slot on the radiating patch using a 50-ohm micro-strip feeding
line on a roger RT5880 substrate and a return loss of -40.99dB at 60 GHz7.
































2.3 Single band
micro-strip patch antenna for 5G wireless application

2.2.1 The name of alternative system#1

The wide-band rectangular DRA for
wireless applications as shown in fig2.4 is made using alumina (dielectric constant= 9.8) and uses a feeding technique called
the strip-fed method it operates at 2.879 GHz and has a gain of 8dBi 8.


Wide-band rectangular DRA for wireless applications

·     Advantages

High gain (more than 8dBi).

Low conductivity loss.

High radiation efficiency

Fractional bandwidth of

·      Disadvantages

Difficult to
fabricate due to presence of gap.


Resonator Antennas for 5G Applications



3.1     Main features

The proposed
system has the following features:


The frequency is ranged between
(28GHz to 38GHz).


The dielectric resonator has a dielectric
constant of ( ?r= 10)

The substrate material is
Fr-4 (1.6)


A 1.85mm end launch
connector will be the feed source.



3.2     Methodology

The software design will be completed using the CST studio.
The dielectric resonator will be fabricated using a SYJ-150 precision low speed
diamond saw to ensure maximum precision in cutting the material. Moreover, the
proposed feeding method will be done through a micro-strip line, the advantages
of this feeding are easy fabrication, matching and convenient for DRA array 3

Fig 3.1 proposed design of system

3.3     System description

This system’s design
will be a rectangular DR with (?r= 10) on top of a FR-4 substrate and will be fed using a micro-strip
line as shown in the past figure (no. 3.1.)














Fig 3.2
simulation using different feeding lengths


A rectangular DRA is one that has a rectangular
cross-section. It is defined by its height, width, depth, and dielectric
constant values. The rectangular DRA is known to be a cut section of an
infinite dielectric resonator. The rectangular shape is the most flexible shape
of all the other basic forms 3, 4. By means this design’s versatility, we are
able to get the bandwidth features we want for the resonance frequency and
dielectric constant set. Perfect magnetic walls are expected in rectangular DRAs
on the four planes parallel to the propagation path of the signal, while the lateral
modules of both fields electric and magnetic are presumed to be nonstop through
both planes, perpendicular to the propagation path    3.

3.3.1 Micro-strip feeding line dimensions


The amount of coupling is controlled
through the value of S as shown in Fig 3.2. The micro-strip line’s width is
calculated using the equations 3.1, 2, 3, 4 and 5. Where ?r is the
Relative Dielectric Constant (?r =4.4), W is the Width of track, t
is the Thickness of track (1 oz/ft2 =0.035 mm) and h is the Thickness of
dielectric (h=1.6). After the calculations the width was determined to be 3mm.


























3.3.2 Dielectric resonator dimensions



Transverse electric and magnetic are
the main modes of a dielectric waveguide, but the mode that is typically
excited when the antenna is attached to the ground plane is the TE mode. By accurately
deciding the dimensions of the antenna, it can be set that undesirable modes do
not come out on the band of the functioning frequency. The rectangular DRA maintains
three modes TEx, TEy and TEz, which is influenced by the dimensions of the dielectric
resonator and the relationship between w, d and b. If a > d > b, then fx
is less than fy and fy is less than fz,
TEx mode’s resonant frequency is fx. Therefore, a rectangular dielectric
resonator antenna’s resonant frequency will be fmn on the TEx?mn mode, which is
calculated by the next equation.











What’s more, m and n
are positive integers related to the field disparity within the y and z paths.
The E and H fields within the antenna for the various modes can be approximated
























Where the upper functions are chosen when the values of m and
n are odd and the lower functions when m or n are even.



3.4     Testing method

The design of the proposed system will be simulated on
the CST studio. Then after the design is fabricated the system will be tested
and calibrated using the vector network analyzer method.





3.5     Summary

In this chapter a description of the proposed system’s
specifications, the methodology used and the technique of determining the
dimensions of the antenna. In the next chapter the time plan for the project’s
tasks will be discussed.





Grad I Time Plan



Task Description




Executed time

studies of DRA&5G technologies.





software of project (HFSS).





software of project (CST).




Week 3,4

Report and presentation





Design of DRA



In progress


Simulation of DRA



In progress






In conclusion the proposed system aims to solve the
problems arising in the antennas of the mm-wave frequencies such as the low
gain, conduction loses, low radiation efficiency and narrowband behavior by
using dielectric resonators instead of the traditional use of micro-strip



K., and P. Bhartia, “Dielectric
resonator antennas – A review and general design relations for resonant
frequency and bandwidth,” International
journal of microwave and millimeter-wave computer-aided engineering, Vol. 4, No. 3, 1994, pp. 230-247.

Y.M. Pan, K.W. Leung and Kai Lu,”Omnidirectional
Linearly and Circularly Polarized Rectangular Dielectric Resonator Antennas,” IEEE Transactions on Antennas and
Propagation, vol. 60, no. 2, Feb. 2012

A. Petosa, Dielectric Resonator Antenna Handbook,
Artech House Publishers, 2007.

K. M. Luk
and K.W. Leung, Dielectric Resonator
Antennas, Hertfordshire, U.K.: Research Studies Press Ltd., 2002.

S. Keyrouz, D. Caratelli and
D. Favreau “Dielectric Resonator Antennas for 5G Applications” Antenna Company
High Tech Campus, Eindhoven, The Netherlands :November, 2016

Shivangi Verma, Leena
Mahajan, Rajesh Kumar, Hardeep Singh Saini, Naveen Kumar “A Small Micro-strip
Patch Antenna for Future 5G Applications” IEEE pp:460-463,2016

7     Jyoti Saini, S. K. Agarwal , “Design
a Single Band Micro-strip Patch Antenna at 60 GHz Millimeter Wave for 5G
Application” IEEE pp:227-230,2017

8     Achraf Jaoujal, Noura Aknin, and Ahmed El Moussaoui “Wide-Band
Rectangular Dielectric Resonator Antenna for Wireless Applications” IEEE pp.:
98-101, 2011

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