Leadership:Leadership is one of those values which are very hard to define.
As Stogdill(1974) states that “there are almost as many different definitions of leadership as there are persons who have attempted to define the concept”. In the beginning leadership was seen as a personal quality, such as for Plato a leader should be wise (Takala ,1998), For Machiavelli the leader needed to have good virtue and be intelligent to have support of people(Machiavelli,1992). In the mid-19th century Stogdill(1950) defined leadership as “the process (act) of influencing the activities of an organized group in its efforts toward goal setting and goal achievement”. It was then leadership was not considered as an individual trait but a way of influencing others. It was then Northhouse(2006) said that a leadership can be characterised in to four components: leadership is a process; it influences; it occurs in a group context and it involves a vision.
All these characteristics suggests that it motivates others to act uniformly to attain a goal.Strategic leadership has been defined by Yukl(2013) as “the process of influencing others to understand and agree about what needs to be done and how to do it, and the process of facilitating individual and collective efforts to accomplish shared objectives.” From the definition we can see that the quality of leadership acts a vision, guidance and a way to motivate his group and strive to attain their common goal.
As a process leadership is a transactional event that happens between a leader and his followers. All the above definitions do not tell us about effective or ineffective leadership as it depends on the repercussion of the process.So it can be said that a leader is a person who influences a group of people towards the achievement of a goal. A leader should have few important characteristics such as trust, commitment, vision, visibility, creative ability and risk taking (Capowski,1994).
Management:Leadership and management are often considered as a same process as they both go hand in hand. But leadership and management are entirely two different processes. Management has been defined by Daft(1999) as “the attainment of organizational goals in an effective and efficient manner through planning, organising, staffing, directing, and controlling organisational resources.”