Lastly while a child is 4 – 5 years they can listen and accurately
retell a story and can follow the meaning of other people’s conversations. A
child speech is now fully intelligible which they can say up to four and five
worlds in a sentence. They now have the knowledge to say their age and birthday
and ask the meanings of more complicated words. Their vocabulary continues to
expand, where they can say approximately 2,000 plus words within this life
stage. They also have a general understanding of shapes and colours, and can
sort objects into simple categories.

In the course of 3 – 4 years a child expression has developed a large
amount since they were born. As we know from 0 – 6 months a baby can only coo
but when a child gets to 3 – 4 they have said up to 1,500 words and can name
and address people. Between 3 and 4 years a child can say a minimum of three to
four words in a sentence. They can explain the function or the use of an object
and can tell you what they are doing. A child has advanced to follow three part
instructions, and now has an understanding of longer and complex sentences and
they can almost instantly say three colours and numbers.

During the age of 2 – 3 years can join at least 2 – 3 words in a
sentence for example “Daddy go work” but they still talk to self in long
monologues. When a child gets to 2 and a half years their vocabulary is 250 –
300 word and can say nouns, pronouns and verbs. Furthermore, when a child is 3
years they have said approximately 1000 words and, they are now using adjectives,
plurals and prepositions. In the course of 2 – 3 years they develop the ability
to obey simple commands without gestures and can follow two part instructions.
A child can answer who, what, where and why questions and when they are asked,
they can point to specific parts of their body parts. Also a child comprehension
skills include identifying objects by name and function.

In the time of 1 – 2 years a child is cable point at objects when they
are named. By the age of 2 years they can understand around 50 words and have
already said 50 – 100 words, which their first words tend to be mum, dad, no,
mine and ta. Also when a child is 24 months they can join up to two words
together. A child can follow and obey simple instructions with gestures such as
“Give the ball to daddy” and “Give me the cup”. They begin to recognise the
different body parts between 1 and 2 years old.

From 6 – 12 months a baby babbles, recognises the names of some objects
and can vocalise with others. Familiar requests such as “Come here” a baby can
respond to it and their name. They start to develop an understanding of
gestures such as a wave for hello or goodbye. At this stage, they still do not
have the ability to speak.

 When a baby is 0 – 6 months they
cannot join any words together, but babies tend to practise sounds need to make
speech. There comprehension includes; being aware of sounds and voices and can
recognise facial expressions and tone of a voice.

Humans use language to communicate with others and to connect to the
world. Language could be, expressed by words, actions, verbal, or non-verbal.
Examples of each is words could be, communicated from a letter. Actions could
be sign language, which is effective for people, who are deaf. Verbal could be
speaking to someone with speech. Lastly non – verbal could be, used by babies by
using facial expressions for instance. Children learn to speak from a very
young age, this could be because the things around them such as parent/carer or
TV are always communicating verbally.



Finally from 3 – 5 years a child can make known their name, age and
gender, can hold a simple conversation and is persistently asking questions.  They can count to ten, name colours and
request their favourite story or song repeatedly. When a child gets to 4 years
they are amused by play that is more realistic knows the daily routine and can
count and sort objects by colour and size. At five years, a child knows the
order of numbers and can name different colours. They can recognise and
identify “bigger” or “biggest” and “small” or “smallest. Lastly, they enjoy
games where you have to match items and understands how to sort objects by

During 9 months – 2 years a child understand the word “No” and can
shout for attention. They can play games such as “peekaboo”, look for toys that
has fallen on the floor and can remember consistent routines such as bath and
bedtime. At 12 months, a baby knows their name, observes and copy the people
around them and can follow simple instructions. They can also name what things
are such as a book, cat and bowl. At one and a half years a child, enjoys
singing nursery rhymes and looking a picture books. They are able to pick up
named toys such as peppa pig or paw patrol. Around this time, they can start to
understand which hand they prefer to use. In the time of two years, they can
say simple sentences with about two or three words and can understand a wide
range of words. They can ask people a name of an object and now knows which
hand they prefer to use at the age of two years. A child knows their full name,
they like to listen to stories, can spot themselves in photographs and can
build tower blocks of seven or more.

From 1 – 6 months, a baby starts to show some recognition to their
parent/carer and can turn their head towards sound. They show excitement by
moving their hands and feet rapidly. Within three months a baby smiles when
they know they are being spoken to, can grasp a rattle and takes an interest
what is surrounding them. Around six months, a child gradually becomes aware of
their fingers, therefore they explore things using their hands by holding toys
for example.

When a child is first born they cry when are in need of something,
such as being fed and changed. In addition, they use their senses to understand
the world they now live in. Their reflex skills such as swallowing will
stimulate brain activity.

Research shows that, perception is making sense of what you see, hear,
smell, touch and taste. Perception results in children start to develop an
understanding of the word they live in. When a child repeats any experiences,
they can build an abstract idea about what to follow and what not to do.
Previous experiences, knowledge and emotions is all due to perception. If you
have looked or even just observed a child, then you should know they tend to
ask a lot of questions. The questions they ask are usually challenging
questions which then the answers are somewhat complicated.

Resources such as writing and reading books is an effective way for
young children to learn. If a child has a writing book they are able to learn
how to spell words and write them out. In addition, a reading book is good for
learning how to read and learn simple basic words to whole sentences with valuable
vocabulary. A child with imagination can lead them to have a better
understanding of the world they are in. Different types of books can help children
be ready for school and strengthen their interest for subjects and ideas.

Intellectual development doesn’t happen not too long after birth.
Babies almost immediately start to use their brains to familiarise themselves
with words and objects, to play and try to understand how to communicate and
learn about the world around them. When a child starts school, intellectual
development continues. This is shown within relationships with others and how
they learn new skills.

Intellectual development means being able to think creatively, to pay
attention, solve problems and develop judgement skills along with a lifelong
readiness to learn (Information from
Health and Social Care – Judith Adams, Mary Riley and Maria Ferreiro Peteiro).
It is effectively how your mind works as you grow. This includes getting an understanding
about society. Also how a child organises their mind, ideas and thoughts about
the world they live in.

Intellectual development


Lastly while a child is 4 -5 years old, they develop gross motor
skills like, being able to walk up and down stairs while holding an object,
jump forward 10 times without falling, cab hang on a bar for at least 5
seconds, step forward with one leg while throwing a ball and can catch a small
ball using only their hand.

In the course of 3 – 4 years old, a child has the mobility to stand on
one foot for around 5 seconds, kick a ball forward, catch a ball with has been
bounced and run around an obstacle. Other gross motor skills consist of being
able to walk in a straight line, hop on one foot and children tend to be able
to jump over an object and land with both feet together. Fine motor skills a
child can do in the time of 3 and 4 years are things such as, building towers
of nine small blocks, coping circles, can make pictures out of play dough
(rolling a ball, makes snakes, cookies), can use non-dominant hand to assist
and stabilise the use of objects and can snip paper using scissors.

When a child gets to 2 – 3 years, there body is not fully able to
stand by their self but can imitate standing on one foot and putting their arms
up together. They are able to pull their body on things like jungle gym and
ladders. Also they can pedal on tricycles, go up and down stairs, jump in place
with two feet and walk on tiptoes, and catch using their hands. During the ages
2 and 3 the fine motor skills include turning single pages, use scissors
without help and knows how to hold a pen. They also know how to roll, pounds,
squeeze, and pull when playing with play dough and can eat without assistance.

During 1 – 2 years, a baby should now be able to sit, crawl and walk.
The gross motor skills a 1 – 2 year’s child should do is kick a ball (Tend to
miss it), begins to run, walk up and down stairs with support, pick up toys
from the floor without falling over, and still has wide gait but walking and
running is less clumsy. Other fine motor skills are things like scribbles, turn
knobs, feeding themselves with assistance and build towers of blocks.

When a baby gets to 6 – 12 months they should now have more of an
understanding how to do more things. Such as crawls on stomach, assumes a seated
position unaided, creeps on hands and knees, transitions into different
positions, pulls self to stand, can take 2 – 3 steps without support and rolls
a ball copying an adult. The fine motor skills a child can do at that age is
reaches, grasps, puts objects in mouth, controlled release of objects, picking
things up with their thumb and a finger and drops and pick up toys.

When your first born you don’t know how to do anything really, all you
know how to do is breathe. From 0 – 6 months most babies are able to lift their
head, hold small objects, reach for toys and follows objects with eyes in all
directions. You still don’t have the strength to crawl or walk but your senses
(Hear, see, taste, smell and touch) are starting to develop.

Physical development


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