King Philip II of Spain, was part of the House of Habsburg The Prudent, ruled one of the largest empires in history, and also ruling England for four years after being married to Mary I of England.King Philip II of Spain was born on May 21, 1527 in Valladolid, Spain, son of Emperor Charles V of The Holy Roman empire and Isabella of Portugal. In February 13, 1543 he married his cousin, Maria of Portugal.  On July 25, 1554 King Philip II married Queen Mary I of England (Bloody Mary), and became King of England for four years. On January 2, 1556 he was crowned King of Spain. On August 10, 1557 the Spanish and the English defeated the French in the Battle of St. Quentin. On April 3, 1559 Philip II and King Henry II of France signed the peace of Cateau-Cambresis, ending a long series of wars between the Habsburg and Valois dynasties. The Escorial, an enormous palace was begun on September 23, 1559 in Madrid, where Philip was buried when he died. On, January 1, 1581 King Philip II of Spain, became the King of Portugal, October 11, 1586 King Philip II invades England and was defeated in 1588 by Queen Elizabeth I, and finally on September 13, 1598, King Philip II of Spain died in his palace, The Escorial.Key TermsEscorial – King Philip’s palace that is now a monastery, where he is buried in. Philip III – Born April 14, 1578 Philip II son with Anna of AustriaBullion Shipments – In 1576, King Philip II had lots of bullion (gold) shipments to Spain from South AmericaPeace of Cateau-Cambresis – A peace treaty signed by Philip II of Spain and Henry II of France to end a long series of wars on April 3, 1559Elisabeth van Valois – King Philip II’s third wife, which established the peace of Cateau-CambresisKing Philip’s Bounty – King Philip II puts 25,000 gold coins on the head of Prince William of OrangeBeheading of Lanuza – After the revolt of Aragon, which was a revolt of anti-monarchism, the revolt leader, Lanuza, was beheaded by King Philip II in December 1591.The Reform of Moriscan Habits – A law that said that Moors living in Spain could not speak Arabic or wear Arabic dress.Battle of St. Quentin – Spanish and English alliance defeated the French in St. Quentin, FranceFrench take over Florida – King Philip II stopped Spanish colonization in Florida, which was a clear opportunity for the French to take it over and start colonizing. King Philip’s first major accomplishment was controlling a protest in the Netherlands by sending a fleet of soldiers there. Another accomplishment of King Philip II was that he won against the French in the Battle of St. Quentin, but was defeated by Queen Elizabeth I when the Spanish Armada tried to invade England. He also ushered the Golden Age in Spain, which was a time when art and culture was at its peak in Spain, making Spain one of the most powerful countries. Philip II is one of the most powerful Spanish kings, and helped the Catholic Church stop protestants during the Counter-Reformation. There were lots of challenges that King Philip II faced during his reign especially revolts in Spain, Netherlands, and in Portugal. When Philip’s reign was ending, the conflicts with France started up again, and resumed when Philip died. The Turks were enemies with the Spaniards, and England signed a treaty with the Turks, which started even more conflict between them. As Spanish boats were returning from the Americas with lots of riches, Pirates attacked the ships and took all supplies, weapons, riches, and killed soldiers and explorers. As more conflict with the Catholics and the Protestants built up, King Philip killed the Protestants, which led to more conflict. King Philip II had an impact on history by influencing other rulers on how to control global exploration in the Americas, how to make treaties, alliances, and truces, like he did with England and France, and how to control revolts. He led to the establishment of more churches and cathedrals in Spain, changed Protestantism to Catholicism by having the Counter-Reformation, and made people be more tolerant and obedient to future kings in Spanish Territories. King Philip II of Spain ruled Spain, Portugal, England, and many other territories for many years, changed the role of monarchy forever, and left a long and interesting history for many future rulers.

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