PetersonDecember10, 2017Criminology Final Exam            Throughout the course of the fallsemester, we have spent a great deal of time exploring the field ofcriminology. Criminology can best be defined as the scientific study of crimeand the reasons why people engage (or don’t engage) in criminal behavior. Oneof the most important questions for debate was presented that goes as follows:Do you believe crime is a moral choice and that criminals are rational thinkingindividuals or do offenders commit crime involuntarily and do they have acompulsion? To answer this question, I believe that crime is an involuntaryact, because the psychoanalytic perspective assumes that an individual’sbehavior is presumed to be due to the three aspects of his or her personality:the id, ego, and superego, as well as other key ingredients such as anxiety,defense mechanisms, and the unconscious (Schram & Tibbetts, 2018, p.

167). Insummary, there are several key factors that can psychologically affect anindividual which could lead them into a life of crime and destruction. Withproper care and supervision, we can prevent these types of events fromhappening and give these individuals the care they so desperately need.            As I previously mentioned above, thepsychoanalytic perspective assumes that an individual’s behavior is presumed tobe due to the three aspects of his/her personality. The psychoanalyticperspective was developed by Sigmund Freud, who many considered to be thefather of psychoanalysis. Freud came up with the three aspects of the id, ego,and the superego. First, the id is the source of instinctual drives which iseverything that is seen at birth. It is important to state that there are twoforces that drive criminals, constructive which is sexual in nature anddestructive which is aggression, destruction, and finally death thereby creatingthe libido.

Second, when talking about the ego it is the moderator between thedemands of an instinct, the superego, and reality. This has to do with reasonand sanity. This can be hard for criminals to rationalize since the realitythat they live in and experiences can negatively affect their brain’s developmentas well as what they can or can’t do and their values toward society. Finally,anxiety and defense mechanisms also are key in the development of thispsychoanalytic perspective. Anxiety can best be defined as follows, “a warningof looming danger or a painful experience which results in the individualattempting to correct the situation” (Schram , 2018, p. 169). Forexample, a woman is harassed by a co-worker who rapes her and threatens her notto say a word to her employees. The defense mechanism would be fear, hostility,and rage which is all psychological and not rational choice.

In conclusion, thepsychoanalytic perspective is one tool that demonstrates that crime is aninvoluntary act and a compulsion.            In following, another theory that addsto my belief that crime is an involuntary act and if they have a compulsion isthe routine activity theory. One of the most alarming statements that itproposed was the idea of the absence of a capable guardian that could interveneon an individual’s behalf.

By having somebody intervene, it will greatlyeliminate the risk of people committing crime throughout the country. Withouthaving somebody intervene on an individual’s behalf, the individual has nosense of belonging. They are deprived of somebody teaching them what’s theright thing to do and what’s the wrong thing to do. A crime will only becommitted if a likely offender thinks that a target is suitable and a capableguardian is absent. If there is a guardian present, the crime rate willdrastically decrease as you will have a person intervene to stop it. By havinga guardian look out for you, the individual can take a step back and realizethat crime is not the answer and that they are loved by somebody.Finally, the final idea that crime is aninvoluntary act and a compulsion should do with child abuse and neglect.

Perthe Joyful Heart foundation, whether children witness or experience abuse, itcan take a toll on their development. Domestic violence victims are notisolated to intimate partners. Children are at an increased risk for emotionalbehavioral problems regardless if they were directly abused or not.

This canpsychologically effect people who may experience the following conditions: Self-harm,eating disorders, alcohol and drug use, trouble sleeping, uncomfortable withphysical contact with others, repeating school grades, absent from school often,as well as criminal activity. In following, the Centers for Disease Control andpreventions is quick to point out that studies have found abused and neglectedchildren to be at least 25% more likely to experience problems such asdelinquency, teen pregnancy, and low academic achievement. Similarly, alongitudinal study found that physically abused children were at greater riskof being arrested as juveniles, being a teen parent, and less likely tograduate high school. That is a scary thought to see and one that needs to beconsidered in dealing with criminals. They didn’t just assume that one day theywere going to go out and commit a crime. It’s much deeper than that and it’smore psychological than anything else.            To answer the question, I do notbelieve that crime is a rational choice but rather it is an involuntary actthat eventually turns into a compulsion.

By looking at Freud’s psychoanalytic statesperspective, we see assumes that an individual’s behavior is presumed to be dueto the three aspects of his or her personality: the id, ego, and superego, aswell as other key ingredients such as anxiety, defense mechanisms, and theunconscious. This illustrates the idea of what a compulsion is which is definedas an irresistible urge to behave in a certain way, especially against one’sconscious wishes. In following, without having a guardian interfere on a person’sbehalf is detrimental because without that human element, there is no sign ofbeing loved or belonging in society that an offender longs for and sodesperately needs. Finally, Child abuse and neglect is an important piece ofpsychological damage as it states that at least 25% more likely to experienceproblems such as delinquency, teen pregnancy, and low academic achievement.With further action, we can help prevent crime in our community to make it asafer place and in accordance keep people out of jail.Part IIWeblink: https://www.the-scientist.com/?articles.

view/articleNo/34757/title/Catching-Criminals/            In the following article, it focuseson Peter Sutcliffe, known as the Yorkshire Ripper, who in October 1975 whokilled a woman by striking her twice in the head with a hammer and 15 timesstabbing her. Without the right data, it was hard for local policed to make anarrest as it took five years to solve the case and convict Sutcliffe of hiscrime. It was found that if law enforcement used Geographic Profiling, it couldhave been a real game-changer to solving the case. By using geographicprofiling, this tactic is specifically designed to track down repeat offendersand in turn pinpoint the source of infectious diseases and invasive species.            In regards to the article, we canconclude that the local law enforcement could have done a much better job tosolve the case, however, without geographic profiling they were at quite thedisadvantage. Steve Le Comber was responsible for geographic profiling and he couldsee the connections as to how with the use of this technology could pinpointthe direct activities of the suspect. With the help of Kim Rossmo, geographicprofiling was able to adapt in the early 1990’s they were able to conclude thatcrimes were more likely to occur where the location is linked.

They also foundthat most common criminals don’t commit crimes on their own property but ratherthere is a buffer zone that they are not willing to travel long distances. Withgeographic profiling, scientists can create a 3-D graph where they can analyzewhere a suspect is more likely to commit crime as well as forming a volcanoshape around the criminal’s home base. In regards to the species, geographicprofiling is being used to track down invasive species. For example, if a treeis spewing out pollen every season, with geographic profiling, we can trackback and find out the source problem.

            The most important concept to takeaway from the article is how beneficiary geographic profiling is in the worldof criminology. Geographic profiling can best be defined as a criminalinvestigative methodology that analyzes the locations of a connected series ofcrimes to determine the most probable area of offender residence. It’simportant to stress the fact that by incorporating both qualitative andquantitative methods, it assists in our understanding of spatial behavior of anoffender and focusing the investigation to a smaller area of the community. Bydoing this, by studying a specific pattern, it provides valuable informationfor the crime solvers such as whether the crime was opportunistic and thedegree of offender familiarity with the crime location.

            This relates to criminology asanother source of data we can use to solve a crime. We’ve learned of theUniform Crime Report which is compiled by the FBI where each month they reportcrimes. We also learned about the National Crime Victimization Survey whichcomprises of thousands of interviews within a period of six months and reliesexclusively on what the people being interviewed have to say. The more datathat you have the better as is the example of the Uniform Crime report beingflawed. With the Geographic Profiling, it will help tremendously to track downvictims. I chose this article because of the idea that it was amazing to seethe advancements that technology has made and how with one development can havea big impact on the solving of crimes.

 BibliographySchram,P. J., & Tibbetts, S. G. (2018). Introduction to criminology: why do theydo it? Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE Publications, Inc.

http://www.joyfulheartfoundation.org/learn/child-abuse-neglect/effects-child-abuse-neglectViolencePrevention. (2016, April 05). Retrieved December 11, 2017, from https://www.cdc.gov/violenceprevention/childmaltreatment/consequences.html


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