January2018: terrorism, drug offences, human trafficking and many more crimes areconsidered the consequence of the progressive elimination of border controlsbetween Member states of the European Union. These changes were introducedbecause of its benefits, for instance, the free movement of persons and goodsbetween members states. However, it has not only facilitated the free movementof persons and goods in the EU, but it also simplifies criminals’ lives tooperate in various European countries, specifically because the goal of lawenforcement authorities and criminal justice systems was ordinarily restrictedto the boundaries of national boarders (Eurostat, 2014). Since the adoption of the AmsterdamTreaty the EU has promised to provide a common area of freedom, security andjustice. This objective was developed even more in the Hague programme in 2004,which described the ten priority fields among others: anti-terrorism measures; reinforcementof fundamental rights and citizenship; establishing a strategy to fightorganised crime; assure a neutral European area of justice (Eurostat, 2014). Thearea of freedom, security and justice involves ways to boost judicialcollaboration in criminal matters. The basis for it is mutual recognition.
Particular measures have been approved to combat transnational violations oflaws and guarantee the protection of victims, suspects and prisoners’ liveswithin the Union (Raffaelli R. 2017). In the field of legislation, practical collaboration and areaof security several instruments had been created in order to safeguard Europeansocieties and economies from organised and severe crime. The augmentation ofcooperation on law enforcement is crucial to combat common threats e.g.terrorism, cybercrime, corruption and trafficking of human beings (EuropeanCommission, 2014).
Nowadays,the European Union has come a long way since its starts. Several years ago itwas difficult to think that the EU would have its own institutions for policeand judicial cooperation, but the evolutionary curve in the field of justiceand home affairs has been rather steep (den Boer M. 2010). However, it stillfaces several issues that do not guarantee the security of European citizens.Especially these last years various phenomenons like terroristic attacks are onthe rise in European member states.
For this reason, this mini thesis will tryto answer the central question: “How can the EU improve police and judicialcooperation in the field of counter terrorism and crime?”, which will focus onthree issue that EU has faced in the past years namely; terrorism, organisedcrime and human trafficking. A topic that relates to every single Europeancitizen, because as already stated, the EU succeeded in protecting Europeancitizens for a relative long period of time, however it faces now newchallenges and will continue to do so in the future as Europe is part ofglobalized and interconnected world where international mobility is expected togrow. The amount of people willing to come to Europe has risen; the EU will beconfronted with urbanisation, diverse societies, demographic changes anddeficiencies in the labour market (European Commission, 2014).
It will benecessary to maximize the advantages that Home Affairs policies can bring tosupport economic growth and increase the judicial and police cooperation to safeguardsecurity of European citizens. In order to comprehend the present and thefuture of Europe in relation to the police and judicial cooperation of memberstates, it is of major importance to start looking at its origins and the startof judicial and police cooperation in the European member states, what its developmentswere arriving at the current issues that the EU is facing and has to improve.Several serious problems and solutions that the EU has offered will bedescribed and finally a conclusion will be made with the addition of severalrecommendations.