January
2018: terrorism, drug offences, human trafficking and many more crimes are
considered the consequence of the progressive elimination of border controls
between Member states of the European Union. These changes were introduced
because of its benefits, for instance, the free movement of persons and goods
between members states. However, it has not only facilitated the free movement
of persons and goods in the EU, but it also simplifies criminals’ lives to
operate in various European countries, specifically because the goal of law
enforcement authorities and criminal justice systems was ordinarily restricted
to the boundaries of national boarders (Eurostat, 2014).  Since the adoption of the Amsterdam
Treaty the EU has promised to provide a common area of freedom, security and
justice. This objective was developed even more in the Hague programme in 2004,
which described the ten priority fields among others: anti-terrorism measures; reinforcement
of fundamental rights and citizenship; establishing a strategy to fight
organised crime; assure a neutral European area of justice (Eurostat, 2014). The
area of freedom, security and justice involves ways to boost judicial
collaboration in criminal matters. The basis for it is mutual recognition.
Particular measures have been approved to combat transnational violations of
laws and guarantee the protection of victims, suspects and prisoners’ lives
within the Union (Raffaelli R. 2017).  In the field of legislation, practical collaboration and area
of security several instruments had been created in order to safeguard European
societies and economies from organised and severe crime. The augmentation of
cooperation on law enforcement is crucial to combat common threats e.g.
terrorism, cybercrime, corruption and trafficking of human beings (European
Commission, 2014).

Nowadays,
the European Union has come a long way since its starts. Several years ago it
was difficult to think that the EU would have its own institutions for police
and judicial cooperation, but the evolutionary curve in the field of justice
and home affairs has been rather steep (den Boer M. 2010). However, it still
faces several issues that do not guarantee the security of European citizens.
Especially these last years various phenomenons like terroristic attacks are on
the rise in European member states. For this reason, this mini thesis will try
to answer the central question: “How can the EU improve police and judicial
cooperation in the field of counter terrorism and crime?”, which will focus on
three issue that EU has faced in the past years namely; terrorism, organised
crime and human trafficking. A topic that relates to every single European
citizen, because as already stated, the EU succeeded in protecting European
citizens for a relative long period of time, however it faces now new
challenges and will continue to do so in the future as Europe is part of
globalized and interconnected world where international mobility is expected to
grow. The amount of people willing to come to Europe has risen; the EU will be
confronted with urbanisation, diverse societies, demographic changes and
deficiencies in the labour market (European Commission, 2014). It will be
necessary to maximize the advantages that Home Affairs policies can bring to
support economic growth and increase the judicial and police cooperation to safeguard
security of European citizens. In order to comprehend the present and the
future of Europe in relation to the police and judicial cooperation of member
states, it is of major importance to start looking at its origins and the start
of judicial and police cooperation in the European member states, what its developments
were arriving at the current issues that the EU is facing and has to improve.
Several serious problems and solutions that the EU has offered will be
described and finally a conclusion will be made with the addition of several
recommendations. 

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