Jack is 3 years old his Fine and Gross motor skills are developing Jackshould have hand eye coordination, be able to feed himself, complete simplejigsaws dress himself and he should also be toilet trained(fine).

According toSigmund Freud’s Psychosexual stages of development theory Jack should be in theanal stage, this is where the child learns to react to some things societydemands such as bowel and bladder control. Jack should be able to walk, run,jump, kick a ball, climb and feel more independent. Jacks need for shelter isbeing met as in the case study it states he lives in an apartment with hismother Helen, this is a Physiological need according to Maslow’s hierarchy ofneeds. Another Physiological need according to Maslow is food, Jack is beingfed as in the case study we are told that most evenings Helen goes to thecorner shop to purchase readymade meals however this is not a very nutritiousdiet for Jack, Helen says that most times she does not bother with eating muchthis isn’t very healthy for Helen or the unborn baby.

Helen at the moment isunder a lot of stress because she is vomiting most mornings, she doesn’t havemuch money, she misses Paul and she’s very anxious about giving birth as shehad a tough birth with Jack so often she starts smoking and consuming alcohol.This can be very dangerous for the unborn baby as smoking and alcohol aretetragons and Helens unborn baby is at critical stages of development andtetragons can cause irreversible damage. Another need that is in Maslow’s hierarchy of needs is clothing thisneed for Jack is not being met as the case study tells us about Jack havingshoes that let in the rain and Helen does not have enough money to buy him newones.IntellectualJack at his age is developing constantly he should have good speech andsentence structure. According to Jean Piaget children learn through ‘Schemas’.Schemas occur through assimilation and accommodation. Assimilation is the childcollecting the information and accommodation is the processing of thatinformation.

Jean Piaget’s cognitive stage theory states that Jack is ‘egocentric’. This is the stage where Jack is not capable of abstract thinking andto Jack everyone sees the world through his eyes. According to this theory Jackis also in the ‘preoperational stage’ of his cognitive development theory. Thisstage is where Jack uses proper grammar to express full concepts, hisimagination and intuition are strong however as I mentioned above abstracttaught is difficult.

Jack is currently not attending a playgroup, a playgroupwould benefit Jack greatly as according to Erik Erickson’s Psychosocial Theoryof development Jack is in stage 3 which is called initiative vs. guilt. Jackshould learn to act in a socially responsible way and control his impulses. Ifhe learns to do that correctly he will become more self-confident, if not theycan develop a strong sense of guilt. Another reason that Jack attending a playgroup is very important is because ‘play’ is very important in a child’sdevelopment. According to Jean Piaget there are four different types of play,creative, physical, imaginative and manipulative.

All play helps the childdevelop intellectually as well as socially(mentioned below). As mentioned in thecase study Jack is throwing tantrums and even throwing stuff around and atHelen. He is using creative play to get attention off Helen as she isconstantly stressed and not focusing on Jack enough, he is experimenting withthe world around him and also is developing socially, emotionally andintellectually. (O’Brien ,2008)EmotionalLove and affection is a need, Harry Harlow proved this through hispsychology attachment experiment with monkeys. Harry Harlow proved that monkeyswill choose contact comfort over food.

Psychologist Mary Ainsworth planned anassessment technique called the ‘Strange Situation classification’ she donethis to find out how attachments might fluctuate between children. Through thisassessment Ainsworth found three main types of attachment ‘Secure Attachment’ ‘AmbivalentAttachment’ and ‘Avoidant Attachment’. Insecure Avoidant children do not turnto their attachment figure when exploring the environment. They are independentof the attachment figure physically and emotionally. They do not look forcontact with the attachment figure in distressing times.

According to Ainsworthsuch children most likely have a caregiver who is rejecting and insensitive oftheir needs, the attachment figure may extract themselves from assisting themduring difficult tasks and is also unavailable during emotionally distressingtimes. To me this is like Jack’s situation as we are told in the case studyJack throws terrible tantrums, this is to get Helens attention but often Helenis to stressed to give Jack the emotional help he needs and she smacked himhard when he threw a big tantrum. Also Helen is rejecting of some of Jacksneeds like new shoes and nutritious food because the money is low.

Jacks needfor family is also being rejected as he once lived with his dad and granny andnow his dad moved out and his granny lives to far so he rarely gets to visither. Therefore they are no longer a constant in Jacks life. Social Jack does not interact with otherchildren as he is at home most of the time and he does not attend a play groupso this need is not being met. Jack should be interacting and playing in orderto develop different skills according to theorist Jean Piaget, there aredifferent groups… Creative, Physical, Imaginative and Manipulative play.Engaging in physical play children learn to use and control large and smallmuscles in their body and they develop co-ordination and they exercise theirwhole body.

Engaging in creative play encourages the child to experiment andalso explore their world, and they develop their social, emotional,intellectual and physical skills. Engaging in imaginative play children learnto act out different situations for enjoyment or to make sure of their ownworld. Engaging in manipulative play develops a child’s hand-eye co-ordination,sight and touch. This play is very important for a child as it allows for thedevelopment of the fine and gross motor skills. (O’Brien, 2008). According toMaslow’s hierarchy of needs family is a safety and security need and for Jackthis is not being met as his dad did live with him but he moved out and also helied with his granny and now they live to far away to visit regularly(O’Brien)        Section2IndividualHelen can ask forhelp from her family. She can contact the GP about Jacks developmental check upto ensure he is developing properly for his age and also to make sure hisvaccinations are up to date.

Paul can be moremature and make changes to his happy go lucky lifestyle, make Jack his priorityin order for him to help meet Jacks needs more accurately.Helens mam could tryvisit regularly and spend time with Jack in order for him to feel more loved byhis family or not to miss them so much. FamilyThe family can organize a meeting in order to figure how they are goingto meet Jacks needs more accurately. Paul could make changes to his lifestyleas we are told in the case study he is regularly socializing with his friendsand he has a happy go lucky lifestyle. He could make Jack his priority andinstead of spending money going out with his friends he could purchase newshoes for Jack. Helens mam could try to visit regularly as she was a big partof Jacks life when he lived with her, they used to play together and also sheused to mind him. Helen could try to give up smoking and drinking as this isdangerous for the unborn baby. Paul and Helen could try to work things out forJack and the unborn baby’s sake, having Paul living with them would stop Jackmissing him and also would help Helen as she would have someone there to playwith Jack and help out.

Government Early childhood care and education scheme(ECCE)- Jack needs to attend a playgroup to allow hisdevelopment to thrive. Helen can apply for the early childhood scheme thisprovides childhood care and education for children age 3 – 5 and a half. Thestate will pay the fees to the day-care and pre-school services. Jack canattend playschool for 3 hours a day 5 days a week. If Helen wants Jack toattend full/part time day care the hours are 3 hours a day for the school year.This will help Jack to meet other children, have a normal routine and have timeaway from his home.

Also this can be free time for Helen. (Citzen Infomation, 2017)Money Advice and budgeting service(MAB’S)- MAB’s is the state’s money advice service.MAB’s is free and confidential.

This can help Helen to manage her money better.(MAB’s money advice & budgeting service)Mediation- This is aservice to help couples who have separated and they would like to speak abouttheir terms of agreement and the needs and interests of everyone involved.Mediation helps people to make their own decisions. This service can help Jackand Helen to stop fighting and speak about the needs of Jack and how it’sbeneficial for his father to be around. (Citzen Infomation, 2017)One Parent Family(OFP)- Helenmay be entitled to one parent family as she does not get regular financialsupport from Paul, as stated in the case study Paul only helps Helen with moneywhen he has it.

One parent family is for women who are bringing up a child ontheir own. To be eligible you must be not living with a spouse, be the child’smain career and also be inadequately financially supported by your children’sfather. All of these apply to Helen. (Citzen Infomation, 2017)Tulsa(child & family agency)- Tulsaprovide family support and is dedicated to giving high quality services tochildren and families at all levels of need. Delivering support to children andfamilies in the earliest stage of difficulty can stop situations from gettingany worse. Tulsa aim to work with families and professionals so they canrespond quickly to the needs of children.

This will help with the fulfilment ofJack’s needs. (Tulsa child and family agency) CommunitySt Vincent De Paul- Helencan contact the St Vincent De Paul through a phone call or online, they willsend out two SVP volunteers and Helen can explain her situation and they willhelp her out, they could bring her food each week, they could provide new shoesfor Jack. This will majorly help Helen out. (Society of St. Vincents De Paul) Barnardos(homemaker family support service)- This service helps parents withhousehold routine. They provide support, budgeting and parenting. They workfrom your household. They help with food shopping and preparation.

They alsohelp parents to form a routine this helps meet the educational, social andemotional needs of a child. This service will be  beneficial to Jack, Helen and the unborn babyas Helen needs help with budgeting and establishing a routine in order to meetJacks needs more accurately. Food shopping and preparation will help Helen tofeed Jack and herself more nutritional meals which in turn will benefit theunborn baby. Helen is also eligible for this service as Jack is under eightyears of age. (Barnardos, 2017)One Family- Onefamily is a holistic parenting support service to support parents and providequality outcomes for children in all families.

This service aims to helpparents understand the main principals of parenting positively. Parent supporthelps parents struggling in the following areas…. Parenting alone, sharingparenting, managing both their own and the child’s behaviour, conflict andstress. This service will benefit Helen, Paul, Jack and the unborn baby. Itwill help Helen with parenting Jack alone, managing her and Jack’s behaviour asJack throws tantrums and often throws things at her.

Helen gets very stressedand she smokes and sometimes consumes alcohol if she can manage her stress theunborn baby will benefit from this. Managing conflict will benefit everyone asHelen and Paul fight a lot. (OneFamily )Parent and Toddler Groups- Parentand Toddler groups are local support groups. The groups create an environment forchildren in which they can play independently with other children and theystill have the security of their parents. This can build a child’s confidence.It can also be beneficial for parents to as it can be a time where they canplay with their child and give them their full attention and they are away fromthe home distractions. It can be a way for parents to meet other parents whoare in similar situations, it can also be the only social interaction parentshave.

This would benefit both Helen and Jack. Jack can spend time with his mamwhere she is fully focusing on him and he can also interact and play with otherchildren. Helen can meet other parents and socialize. (Early Childhood Ireland, 2015-2017)ResearchI researched different community help and government help online onthese different websites…….http://www.

tusla.ie https://www.earlychildhoodireland.ie/https://onefamily.ie/https://www.barnardos.


ie/en/https://www.mabs.ie/en/Section3Interpersonal & Interactive skillsListening- This is animportant skill that is needed in this situation because it is still a bit rawas Helen is having a tough pregnancy, majorly stressed out and missing Paul.Helen needs someone that she can open up to and that will listen to her abouthow she feels and what she would like to happen.Patience- Being a healthcareworker requires patience, cases can be difficult and they can have many differentpeople with contrasting goals, also change does not happen overnight.

Peoplethat healthcare workers deal with may not be talkative, or able of asking forwhat they need. Having patience will stop you from getting frustrated withmajor issues you and your client face.Non-Judgemental- When ahealth care team are dealing with this situation they need to be non-judgementalbecause the family need to feel that they can trust them and they can tell themeverything and they won’t project the family in a bad way for not having themoney to meet Jack’s needs. Also not making Helen feel bad for beingemotionally unavailable to Jack.

Communication- Ahealthcare worker needs to communicate with the family when making decisions,they need to make the family feel involved and like they are making progress.They need to tell the family their best options. Also they must not make thefamily feel like they don’t what is happening and unsure. Reliable- Trust isvery important and most healthcare workers gain their clients trust by beingopen, reliable and honest. In tough time’s clients will look to their socialworkers for guidance and advice in personal and other problems and your opinionmeans more if the client trusts you. Clients need support and you cannotwithdraw from them if they disagree with you or make a mistake.

(Social Work Degree )Section 4Ø  Family Meeting- To discuss the importance ofJack’s needs. To speak about visiting. Paul needs to put Jack first, Helens mamneeds to visit more to stop Jack missing them. The family need to help out moreto take some stress off Helen and the unborn baby.

Ø  Helen needs to book a visit to the GP forJack’s developmental check up to ensure he is developing correctly and also tomake sure his vaccinations are up to date.Ø  Apply for the ECCE to get Jack a place in apreschool to meet his need to play and interact with other children.Ø  Recommend Helen contacts Barnardos to helpHelen prepare healthier food for Jack and to establish a routine at home.Ø  Recommend Helen contacts MAB’s to help herwith budgeting advice.Ø  Recommend Helen contacts Tulsa for familysupport and support with meeting Jack’s needs.

Ø  Recommend Helen gets in touch with St.Vincent de Paul for money help for new shoes for Jack.Ø  Help Helen organise Mediation for her and Paulso they can speak about their fights and work on it.Ø  Recommend Helen to contact ‘one family’ tocope with her stress rather then smoking and drinking.Ø  Help Helen research a parent and toddlergroup, for Jack to play with other children and spend time with Helen when sheis fully focused on him.

Also for Helen to meet other people in similarsituations and for her to possibly make friends.  In such a sensitive case like this it is very important for Healthcareworkers to show Empathy and Self-Confidence Self Confidence- It isimportant for a healthcare worker to have and to show self-confidence. A healthcareworker must have confidence in the decisions they make and the advice theygive, if they don’t the clients will feel unsure and in turn they will have no confidencein themselves or the healthcare worker. This will slow down their progress.Empathy- One of themain characteristics of a healthcare worker is their empathy. The main people ahealthcare worker works with are in emotional distress or a crisis.

You must asa healthcare worker be able to provide a understanding, caring and inspiring environmentfor them. You must be able to place yourself in their shoes and understand thesituation they are in. Clients also may not open up to you if they feel theyare out of touch with you, you need to make yourself relatable to them. (Social Work Degree ) 


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