Jack is 3 years old his Fine and Gross motor skills are developing Jack
should have hand eye coordination, be able to feed himself, complete simple
jigsaws dress himself and he should also be toilet trained(fine). According to
Sigmund Freud’s Psychosexual stages of development theory Jack should be in the
anal stage, this is where the child learns to react to some things society
demands such as bowel and bladder control. Jack should be able to walk, run,
jump, kick a ball, climb and feel more independent. Jacks need for shelter is
being met as in the case study it states he lives in an apartment with his
mother Helen, this is a Physiological need according to Maslow’s hierarchy of
needs. Another Physiological need according to Maslow is food, Jack is being
fed as in the case study we are told that most evenings Helen goes to the
corner shop to purchase readymade meals however this is not a very nutritious
diet for Jack, Helen says that most times she does not bother with eating much
this isn’t very healthy for Helen or the unborn baby. Helen at the moment is
under a lot of stress because she is vomiting most mornings, she doesn’t have
much money, she misses Paul and she’s very anxious about giving birth as she
had a tough birth with Jack so often she starts smoking and consuming alcohol.
This can be very dangerous for the unborn baby as smoking and alcohol are
tetragons and Helens unborn baby is at critical stages of development and
tetragons can cause irreversible damage. 
Another need that is in Maslow’s hierarchy of needs is clothing this
need for Jack is not being met as the case study tells us about Jack having
shoes that let in the rain and Helen does not have enough money to buy him new


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Jack at his age is developing constantly he should have good speech and
sentence structure. According to Jean Piaget children learn through ‘Schemas’.
Schemas occur through assimilation and accommodation. Assimilation is the child
collecting the information and accommodation is the processing of that
information. Jean Piaget’s cognitive stage theory states that Jack is ‘ego
centric’. This is the stage where Jack is not capable of abstract thinking and
to Jack everyone sees the world through his eyes. According to this theory Jack
is also in the ‘preoperational stage’ of his cognitive development theory. This
stage is where Jack uses proper grammar to express full concepts, his
imagination and intuition are strong however as I mentioned above abstract
taught is difficult. Jack is currently not attending a playgroup, a playgroup
would benefit Jack greatly as according to Erik Erickson’s Psychosocial Theory
of development Jack is in stage 3 which is called initiative vs. guilt. Jack
should learn to act in a socially responsible way and control his impulses. If
he learns to do that correctly he will become more self-confident, if not they
can develop a strong sense of guilt. Another reason that Jack attending a play
group is very important is because ‘play’ is very important in a child’s
development. According to Jean Piaget there are four different types of play,
creative, physical, imaginative and manipulative. All play helps the child
develop intellectually as well as socially(mentioned below). As mentioned in the
case study Jack is throwing tantrums and even throwing stuff around and at
Helen. He is using creative play to get attention off Helen as she is
constantly stressed and not focusing on Jack enough, he is experimenting with
the world around him and also is developing socially, emotionally and
intellectually. (O’Brien ,2008)


Love and affection is a need, Harry Harlow proved this through his
psychology attachment experiment with monkeys. Harry Harlow proved that monkeys
will choose contact comfort over food. Psychologist Mary Ainsworth planned an
assessment technique called the ‘Strange Situation classification’ she done
this to find out how attachments might fluctuate between children. Through this
assessment Ainsworth found three main types of attachment ‘Secure Attachment’ ‘Ambivalent
Attachment’ and ‘Avoidant Attachment’. Insecure Avoidant children do not turn
to their attachment figure when exploring the environment. They are independent
of the attachment figure physically and emotionally. They do not look for
contact with the attachment figure in distressing times. According to Ainsworth
such children most likely have a caregiver who is rejecting and insensitive of
their needs, the attachment figure may extract themselves from assisting them
during difficult tasks and is also unavailable during emotionally distressing
times. To me this is like Jack’s situation as we are told in the case study
Jack throws terrible tantrums, this is to get Helens attention but often Helen
is to stressed to give Jack the emotional help he needs and she smacked him
hard when he threw a big tantrum. Also Helen is rejecting of some of Jacks
needs like new shoes and nutritious food because the money is low. Jacks need
for family is also being rejected as he once lived with his dad and granny and
now his dad moved out and his granny lives to far so he rarely gets to visit
her. Therefore they are no longer a constant in Jacks life.


 Jack does not interact with other
children as he is at home most of the time and he does not attend a play group
so this need is not being met. Jack should be interacting and playing in order
to develop different skills according to theorist Jean Piaget, there are
different groups… Creative, Physical, Imaginative and Manipulative play.
Engaging in physical play children learn to use and control large and small
muscles in their body and they develop co-ordination and they exercise their
whole body. Engaging in creative play encourages the child to experiment and
also explore their world, and they develop their social, emotional,
intellectual and physical skills. Engaging in imaginative play children learn
to act out different situations for enjoyment or to make sure of their own
world. Engaging in manipulative play develops a child’s hand-eye co-ordination,
sight and touch. This play is very important for a child as it allows for the
development of the fine and gross motor skills. (O’Brien, 2008). According to
Maslow’s hierarchy of needs family is a safety and security need and for Jack
this is not being met as his dad did live with him but he moved out and also he
lied with his granny and now they live to far away to visit regularly(O’Brien)











Helen can ask for
help from her family. She can contact the GP about Jacks developmental check up
to ensure he is developing properly for his age and also to make sure his
vaccinations are up to date.

Paul can be more
mature and make changes to his happy go lucky lifestyle, make Jack his priority
in order for him to help meet Jacks needs more accurately.

Helens mam could try
visit regularly and spend time with Jack in order for him to feel more loved by
his family or not to miss them so much.


The family can organize a meeting in order to figure how they are going
to meet Jacks needs more accurately. Paul could make changes to his lifestyle
as we are told in the case study he is regularly socializing with his friends
and he has a happy go lucky lifestyle. He could make Jack his priority and
instead of spending money going out with his friends he could purchase new
shoes for Jack. Helens mam could try to visit regularly as she was a big part
of Jacks life when he lived with her, they used to play together and also she
used to mind him. Helen could try to give up smoking and drinking as this is
dangerous for the unborn baby. Paul and Helen could try to work things out for
Jack and the unborn baby’s sake, having Paul living with them would stop Jack
missing him and also would help Helen as she would have someone there to play
with Jack and help out.


Early childhood care and education scheme(ECCE)- Jack needs to attend a playgroup to allow his
development to thrive. Helen can apply for the early childhood scheme this
provides childhood care and education for children age 3 – 5 and a half. The
state will pay the fees to the day-care and pre-school services. Jack can
attend playschool for 3 hours a day 5 days a week. If Helen wants Jack to
attend full/part time day care the hours are 3 hours a day for the school year.
This will help Jack to meet other children, have a normal routine and have time
away from his home. Also this can be free time for Helen. (Citzen Infomation, 2017)

Money Advice and budgeting service(MAB’S)- MAB’s is the state’s money advice service.
MAB’s is free and confidential. This can help Helen to manage her money better.
money advice & budgeting service)

Mediation- This is a
service to help couples who have separated and they would like to speak about
their terms of agreement and the needs and interests of everyone involved.
Mediation helps people to make their own decisions. This service can help Jack
and Helen to stop fighting and speak about the needs of Jack and how it’s
beneficial for his father to be around. (Citzen Infomation, 2017)

One Parent Family(OFP)- Helen
may be entitled to one parent family as she does not get regular financial
support from Paul, as stated in the case study Paul only helps Helen with money
when he has it. One parent family is for women who are bringing up a child on
their own. To be eligible you must be not living with a spouse, be the child’s
main career and also be inadequately financially supported by your children’s
father. All of these apply to Helen. (Citzen Infomation, 2017)

Tulsa(child & family agency)- Tulsa
provide family support and is dedicated to giving high quality services to
children and families at all levels of need. Delivering support to children and
families in the earliest stage of difficulty can stop situations from getting
any worse. Tulsa aim to work with families and professionals so they can
respond quickly to the needs of children. This will help with the fulfilment of
Jack’s needs. (Tulsa child and family agency)


St Vincent De Paul- Helen
can contact the St Vincent De Paul through a phone call or online, they will
send out two SVP volunteers and Helen can explain her situation and they will
help her out, they could bring her food each week, they could provide new shoes
for Jack. This will majorly help Helen out. (Society of
St. Vincents De Paul)

(homemaker family support service)- This service helps parents with
household routine. They provide support, budgeting and parenting. They work
from your household. They help with food shopping and preparation. They also
help parents to form a routine this helps meet the educational, social and
emotional needs of a child. This service will be  beneficial to Jack, Helen and the unborn baby
as Helen needs help with budgeting and establishing a routine in order to meet
Jacks needs more accurately. Food shopping and preparation will help Helen to
feed Jack and herself more nutritional meals which in turn will benefit the
unborn baby. Helen is also eligible for this service as Jack is under eight
years of age. (Barnardos, 2017)

One Family- One
family is a holistic parenting support service to support parents and provide
quality outcomes for children in all families. This service aims to help
parents understand the main principals of parenting positively. Parent support
helps parents struggling in the following areas…. Parenting alone, sharing
parenting, managing both their own and the child’s behaviour, conflict and
stress. This service will benefit Helen, Paul, Jack and the unborn baby. It
will help Helen with parenting Jack alone, managing her and Jack’s behaviour as
Jack throws tantrums and often throws things at her. Helen gets very stressed
and she smokes and sometimes consumes alcohol if she can manage her stress the
unborn baby will benefit from this. Managing conflict will benefit everyone as
Helen and Paul fight a lot. (OneFamily

Parent and Toddler Groups- Parent
and Toddler groups are local support groups. The groups create an environment for
children in which they can play independently with other children and they
still have the security of their parents. This can build a child’s confidence.
It can also be beneficial for parents to as it can be a time where they can
play with their child and give them their full attention and they are away from
the home distractions. It can be a way for parents to meet other parents who
are in similar situations, it can also be the only social interaction parents
have. This would benefit both Helen and Jack. Jack can spend time with his mam
where she is fully focusing on him and he can also interact and play with other
children. Helen can meet other parents and socialize. (Early Childhood Ireland, 2015-2017)


I researched different community help and government help online on
these different websites…….









Interpersonal & Interactive skills

Listening- This is an
important skill that is needed in this situation because it is still a bit raw
as Helen is having a tough pregnancy, majorly stressed out and missing Paul.
Helen needs someone that she can open up to and that will listen to her about
how she feels and what she would like to happen.

Patience- Being a healthcare
worker requires patience, cases can be difficult and they can have many different
people with contrasting goals, also change does not happen overnight. People
that healthcare workers deal with may not be talkative, or able of asking for
what they need. Having patience will stop you from getting frustrated with
major issues you and your client face.

Non-Judgemental- When a
health care team are dealing with this situation they need to be non-judgemental
because the family need to feel that they can trust them and they can tell them
everything and they won’t project the family in a bad way for not having the
money to meet Jack’s needs. Also not making Helen feel bad for being
emotionally unavailable to Jack.

Communication- A
healthcare worker needs to communicate with the family when making decisions,
they need to make the family feel involved and like they are making progress.
They need to tell the family their best options. Also they must not make the
family feel like they don’t what is happening and unsure.

Reliable- Trust is
very important and most healthcare workers gain their clients trust by being
open, reliable and honest. In tough time’s clients will look to their social
workers for guidance and advice in personal and other problems and your opinion
means more if the client trusts you. Clients need support and you cannot
withdraw from them if they disagree with you or make a mistake. (Social Work Degree )

Section 4

Ø  Family Meeting- To discuss the importance of
Jack’s needs. To speak about visiting. Paul needs to put Jack first, Helens mam
needs to visit more to stop Jack missing them. The family need to help out more
to take some stress off Helen and the unborn baby.

Ø  Helen needs to book a visit to the GP for
Jack’s developmental check up to ensure he is developing correctly and also to
make sure his vaccinations are up to date.

Ø  Apply for the ECCE to get Jack a place in a
preschool to meet his need to play and interact with other children.

Ø  Recommend Helen contacts Barnardos to help
Helen prepare healthier food for Jack and to establish a routine at home.

Ø  Recommend Helen contacts MAB’s to help her
with budgeting advice.

Ø  Recommend Helen contacts Tulsa for family
support and support with meeting Jack’s needs.

Ø  Recommend Helen gets in touch with St.
Vincent de Paul for money help for new shoes for Jack.

Ø  Help Helen organise Mediation for her and Paul
so they can speak about their fights and work on it.

Ø  Recommend Helen to contact ‘one family’ to
cope with her stress rather then smoking and drinking.

Ø  Help Helen research a parent and toddler
group, for Jack to play with other children and spend time with Helen when she
is fully focused on him. Also for Helen to meet other people in similar
situations and for her to possibly make friends.



In such a sensitive case like this it is very important for Healthcare
workers to show Empathy and Self-Confidence

Self Confidence- It is
important for a healthcare worker to have and to show self-confidence. A healthcare
worker must have confidence in the decisions they make and the advice they
give, if they don’t the clients will feel unsure and in turn they will have no confidence
in themselves or the healthcare worker. This will slow down their progress.

Empathy- One of the
main characteristics of a healthcare worker is their empathy. The main people a
healthcare worker works with are in emotional distress or a crisis. You must as
a healthcare worker be able to provide a understanding, caring and inspiring environment
for them. You must be able to place yourself in their shoes and understand the
situation they are in. Clients also may not open up to you if they feel they
are out of touch with you, you need to make yourself relatable to them. (Social Work Degree )



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