IntroductionDid you know that 48% of all Americans drink a carbonated beverage on a daily basis?  Individual soft drinks cost about two dollars, and the average American makes \$50,000 a year.  If you have one soft drink everyday of the year, that is \$730 dollars out of the average American income. Woudn’t it be great if you could make your own carbonated sodas at home? This experiment demonstrates how you can preserve your carbonated beverage for long lasting enjoyment.  Statement of the ProblemHow do additives and carbonation affect the freezing time of distilled water?Lit Review HypothesisMy hypothesis is that the Sprite and Canada Dry will freeze slower than the distilled water, and that after the liquids are exposed to air, the ones with carbonation and or additives will freeze completely then.ProcedureStep #1:  Fill the 8 oz water bottles with the liquidsStep #2:  Let the drinks sit out for 30 minutes. (capped)Step #3:  Take them out in chosen number if hours for that trial.Step #4:  Uncap the bottles and record the reaction.

Step #5:  Repeat 5 times. FindingsInsert graphs here.  Overall, none of the results were the exact same, but they all had general the same reaction.

Only the distilled water completely froze, and the Canada Dry and Sprite froze half way.  The first trial, I put the drinks in the freezer for two hours, and the distilled water froze, but the Sprite and Canada Dry, both which contained carbonation, only froze where the liquid bordered the plastic.  The second trial, I put the drinks in the freezer for two hours, and the distilled water was once again frozen, and the sodas were once again semi – frozen, but when I uncapped the bottles, the drinks overflowed.  The third trial, I put the drinks in the freezer for three and a half hours, and the distilled water was frozen, and when I uncapped the Canada Dry, nothing happened, but when I uncapped the Sprite, it overflowed again.  The fourth trial, the drinks were in the freezer for four hours, and the distilled water froze, the Canada Dry was semi – frozen, and the Sprite started to fizz, but did not overflow.

The fifth trial, the drinks were put in the freezer for five hours, and the distilled water froze, the Canada Dry semi – froze, but the Sprite stayed completely liquid, which had not happened before.  Analysis- what does it mean? Look at your introduction and tie it together.Literature Review Joseph Priestly invented carbonation and introduced it to society in the 1800s, when Joseph Priestly invented it.  He is said to have discovered how to infuse water with carbon dioxide in 1776.  Priestley infused water with carbon dioxide by putting a bowl of water above a beer vat in a brewery in Leeds, London.  In 1772, he published a paper titled Impregnating Water with Fixed Air.

i Priestley found that the water had acquired a nice taste, so he started selling it to his friends as a new, previously unheard of beverage.  A series of scientists elaborated on Priestley’s technique over the years, developing technologies and machines that could speed up and simplify the process.  Soda fountains were not in existence until 1807.  It was not until the 1830s and 40s that John Matthews and John Lippincott began producing them in the United States.iiCarbonation is a solution of carbon dioxide gas in water. The carbon dioxide is generally kept in the water through pressure (either in a bottle or in a natural spring), and will slowly release once that pressure is relieved, forming bubbles of carbon dioxide gas.  Carbonated water, which is also known as club soda, soda water, sparkling water, seltzer water, bubbly water, or fizzy water, is water into which carbon dioxide gas under pressure has been dissolved. Some of these types of carbonated waters have additives, but Seltzer water, the purest form of carbonated water, is almost always composed of water and carbon dioxide with no other additives.

Below is a diagram of the water carbonation process. Carbonated mineral water is considered to have positive and negative attributes.   Some people believe that it is a staple health food.  Others claim it has beneficial medicinal qualities.  Carbonic acid can work to balance acid in the stomach, which can comfort nausea.However, carbonated water is known to cause dental erosion which results from the carbonic acid levels.  The phosphoric acid in carbonated water may also reduce bone density.

Carbonated water was considered a medicine for many ailments, and people wanted to find a way to make it more commercially available.  As a result, naturally carbonated water, seltzers, have been commercially bottled and shipped since the 18th century or earlier.Previous studies show that if you leave carbonated water in the freezer, and after time pull it out, it is still liquid, but it immediately freezes outside of the freezer.   “I once left some carbonated water in the freezer and when I pulled it out, I was relieved that it did not freeze. As soon as I unscrewed the top, I watched in delight as the entire bottle (12 oz.) froze in front of my very eyes.  I believe it didn’t freeze because it was under high pressure from the gas, and then it froze upon reduction of the pressure.” iii   “Because coke contains sugar and carbonation it’s freezing temperature is not the same as water.

If you place a plastic bottle of coke in the freezer, it will stay slushy until it is opened and then it can automatically freeze solid after the carbonation is released.” iv”When we had the really cold weather I had a bottle of fizzy water on the back of my van the water inside was water until I opened it then it froze right in front of my eyes. Has the fact that it was fizzy got anything to do with it?” v    For my science fair project, distilled water, Sprite, and seltzer water with no additives, such as Canada Dry, are going to be put in the freezer, and I will compare their freezing times and the outcomes.         From my research, I learned multiple facts, such what carbonation is, and the history of carbonation, including when carbonation was invented, and how carbonated water is created and processed.  Also, I learned some of the effects that carbonation and carbonated liquids have on the human body.

Data Tables Conclusions The data I collected did and did not support my hypothesis.  The Sprite and Canada Dry did freeze slower than the distilled water, as predicted, but when I uncapped them, they did not freeze when released to carbon dioxide. If I were to do this project over again, I would put the drinks in the freezer uncapped instead of capped, and I would have tried freezing more types of beverages.  Recommendations This experiment Bibliographyi www.wikipedia.orgii www.wikipedia.orgiii www.metafilter.com  iv www.snvplastics.comv www.thenakedscientists.com

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