Introduction”Procrastination is the art ofkeeping up with yesterday and avoiding today” (Wayne Dyer, 2012).
Procrastinationis a delay in the execution of an intended action it may be termed as avoidancebehaviour commonly observed in the society. People may procrastinate theirpersonal issues or day to day activates, their health related issues, and workrelated tasks and even obligatory events (Wendeline Van Earde, 2015). Procrastinationhas been defined as a failure to self-regulate to achieve intended goals, whichresults in a time delay & it has been seen as a universal phenomenon thathinders people’s ability for accomplishing their goals (Steel, 2007). Accordingto Yong (2010), academic procrastination is “an irrational tendency to delay atthe beginning or completion of an academic task”. Indeed, many students do nothave sufficient drive to start their academic work, even when they intend tocomplete it by the deadline.
Comparatively there are two commonkinds of procrastination. One is ArousalProcrastination and the other one is Avoidantprocrastination. Arousal procrastination refers to the behaviour of anindividual in which he/she purposively procrastinate or delay the task at lastmoment in order to indulge themselves inhyper activity to meet the deadline for completion of that task. On the otherhand Avoidant procrastination may refer to the behaviour that may reflect one’sability that will claim the lack of interest, effort which will consequentlyleads to a poor performance (Joseph R Ferrari, 2005).
According to Angela(2005), there are two different kinds of procrastinators Passive procrastinators & ActiveProcrastinators. Passive procrastinators are those who delay their work intraditional way and active procrastinators are kind of positive procrastinatorsthat prefer to work under pressure.Procrastination as a self-monitoringaverting responseMostly literature on procrastinationincludes the differentiation between procrastinator’s vs non procrastinators.Basically procrastination leads to high level of stress, time wastage and poorperformance .Procrastinators are kind of lazy beings.
While Non procrastinatorshave high level of efficiency in order to increase productivity and Performanceas they have increased level of motivation as compared to Procrastinators. Theonly possible way to overcome procrastination is to increase awareness ofbehaviour at start, then overcoming avoidance attitude (Van Eerde, 2000).Problem Statement Historical review of time managementstudies allows an impression that how useful time management will be if it iscarried out in a proper way (Eerde, 2015). Moreover, this study reveal differentresearch areas that may be considered as time management, Cross sectionalsurveys and Attention. Time management is de?ned and operationalised in plentyof ways. Some instruments are neither reliable nor valid, that may causeinvalid and unstable ?ndings (Zaidi, 2015). After this many of the studies aredepending on cross-sectional surveys and used self-reports (Yerdelen, McCaffrey& Klassen, 2016). Lastly very minor attention is given to job anddirectorial factors.
The only need is nothing more than a demanding research toelaborate the mechanisms of time management and different elements that willplay a key role to its usefulness. Furthermore stable time managementbehaviours along with longitudinal bases are investigated.Significance of StudyThe purpose of this study is toprovide an overview for understanding the current State-of-the-art in timemanagement research. According to Clarry (2010), procrastination occurs whenthere’s “a sequential or chronological gap between intended behaviour and enactedbehaviour.
” That is when there’s a substantial time span between “whenpeople propose to do a job”, and “when they actually do it”.This sequential gap can be filled byconsidering following areas under observation:Ø Recognize that you’re ProcrastinatingØ Work out WHY you’re ProcrastinatingØ Adopt Anti-Procrastination StrategiesRESEARCHQUESTIONFollowing research question areraised while seeing that individuals avoid specific tasks or not to get aroundfor the things that you need to get completed in a timely manner. He threw inthe future. This study will be able to answer the following questions.Ø Procrastination is a habit or adisease?Ø Impact of time procrastinationeffecting time management in an organization?Ø Impact of effective time managementtraining maximizing the productivity?Ø Sensitivity towards work delayeffecting overall performance?Framework Time management Avoidance reaction (Procrastination) Worrying Time management Training Literature ReviewConceptualizing the term”procrastination”Generally the concept ofprocrastination is closely related to meet deadlines within a specific timeframe. However both the practical literature and academic literature havelinked kind of negative suggestion with the concept of wilful delay as it mayconcerned directly to the individual’s ability to meet deadlines, and temporarydimensions to the personality construct (Ferrari, 2000).
Procrastination issporadically used in a positive sense. Chu and Choi (2005), have mentioned itas a functional delay or as avoiding rush.Time managementStudy shows that Value and timeprocrastination have highly important theoretical connection that will includetask averseness, need for achievement, boredom Proneness.Ø Task averseness have unpleasantvariables having low value and positive effect on procrastination.Ø Need for achievement helps to createmore pleasure in accomplishment showing negative relations with procrastination.
Ø Boredom proneness increase thelikelihood so that life’s task will be found mind-numbing showing positiverelation.Avoidance reaction to a deadline Procrastinators always considered asimpulsive, distractible, and lacking in self-control; thus, they are verysensitive to delays. It would be superlative to influence these characteristicsdirectly, although as personality traits they are fairly stable there has beensome success with treating.WorryingTime orientation seems to be a veryessential variable to be considered while measuring time procrastination.Zimbardo & Boyd, (1999) discussed time as Continues ongoing process ofindividual and social experience that will help individuals to rank, prioritiesand give meaning to the events non-consciously. It includes past present andfuture dimensions. Brislin & Kim (2003), might allow emphasis as anorientation person to take a long-term perspective, to avoid risks, andunderscore the stability, while focusing on current guidance could facilitate aperson to live in here and now by focusing on short-term outlook. Procrastinationcan be conceptualized as wilful delay in urgent tasks although they are totallyaware of the results which will be worse off for doing so (Steel,2007)consequently it will set up priority stages to control present mood at the costof future mood.
HYPOTHESIS Ø H1: Does perceived control group reportincrease in time management?Ø H2: Does trainees report decrease inworrying?Ø H3: Does decrease in avoidance reaction(procrastination) reported positively?Research DesignThis studydoes not actually conclude about the changes caused by training in dependantvariable but it ascribes change into training more likely by including thehistorical information used as base of the study. To ensure the assessedchanges different variables are measured by using SPSS.RESEARCHOBJECTIVESTo investigate the issues there isneed to set realistic goals which should be based on:Ø To take advantage of your time,emotional & effective manner is important to know:· Short-term goals: What do you need to get done thisweek?· Medium-term objectives: when the next article because of me?· Long-term goals: What do I need to do to prepare forthe exams?Ø By working with the time on the hugetasks such as lengthy essay and review of the exam over several weeks ormonths.Ø Another way intended to limitexpected to create or find a place good working procrastination. It should be agood place to work free from all the things that the views of one asdistractions.
Research MethodologyStudy Selection, Date collection source and TechniquesThe mainfocus of avoiding procrastination is on performance within the time frame of anormal workday. The overall focus is spotted on two levels:Ø The levelof daily tasksØ Theindividual levelCombinationof these two levels elaborate prioritisation of day to day task completionaccording to their background in terms of job characterises, personality, andtraining as individuals may follow different approaches. But most of data werecollected through using questioner and the philosophy that were used ispositivism because data were collected by using survey & questionier.Future directionI personally believe that timemanagement deserves further research, using more demanding methods of analysis.Such research may clarify both the processes involved and the effects onperceptions, feelings and performance. From a practical perspective this reviewis quite successful in order to identify different sector for time management,including time assessment, setting goals, planning, prioritising andmonitoring, that seem to affect outcomes positively.
Incorporating all theseaspects in a systematic manner may help to improve current time managementtraining programs and to develop new time management interventions.ConclusionThis study of time management gives animpression that how useful time management can be but some individuals orresearchers are doubtful about the results of execution of time management inpractice, scienti?c studies have demonstrated that the popularity of timemanagement is justi?ed in as far as it has some favourable effects on people’sperceptions and feelings.