Introduction Hepatocellularcarcinoma (HCC) is the sixth most common cancer worldwide, but it ranks as thesecond most common cause of cancer-related death worldwide.

There has been amarked increase in HCC-related annual death rates during the past two decades.Thus, HCC represents a major public health problem.(1).Early screeningof patients for HCC has been reported to confer a survival benefit.

Patientswho are identified early have multiple treatment options leading to improvedoutcomes(2). However, in clinical settings, onlyapproximately 30% to 40% of patients with HCC can get effective treatment atthe right time, and few molecules have been used as clinical biomarkers forHCC. Alpha-fetoprotein (AFP), AFP lectin fraction (AFP-L3), and des-?-carboxyprothrombin (DCP, also known as proteins induced through vitamin K deficiencyor antagonist-II, PIVKA-II) have been used as conventional serum tumor markers,However, these markers often show false-positive results, and lack sufficientsensitivity and specificity. (3).Micro RNAs (MiRNA) are aspecial type of short endogenous non-coding RNA with a length of ~22 nt. MiRNAsare usually regarded as gene repressors at the post-transcriptional levelthrough binding to the 3?-UTRs of the target mRNAs.

(4) . Since many key biological processes including the development,differentiation, and cell cycles are regulated by microRNAs, the abnormalexpression of microRNAs is often associated with the initialization and progressionof many diseases. Thus, miRNAs usually could serve as suitable biomarkers formany diseases, such as neurodevelopmental disorders, cancer, and cardiovasculardisease. (5).The deregulation of specificmiRNAs has been identified in HCC, including miR-148a, miR-203, miR-138, miR-122and miR-124. Therefore, these miRNAs may become potential therapeutic targetsor candidates for HCC treatment. (6).In our study, we willconduct a case control study to evaluate the association between miRNA 196a2rs11614913 and MiRNA 34 b/c rs4938723 polymorphism with the risk ofhepatocellular carcinoma.

  Aim of thestudyThe aim of this work is tostudy the expression level of MiRNA 196a2 rs11614913 and MiRNA 34 b/c rs4938723Gene polymorphism in hepatocellularcarcinoma (HCC) patients using realtime reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) technique. This will be correlated toclinical features and laboratory findings at diagnosis. Review ofliterature1- Hepatocellularcarcinoma.2- Micro RNA. Subjects andmethod40adult HCC patients will be included in this study, and they will be compare to40 cirrhotic patients and 20 healthy age- and sex-matched normal controls. Livercancer was diagnosed on the basis of at least two imaging methods (ultrasound,liver CT,) and biochemistry (Alpha fetoprotein AFP).Exclusioncriteria include patients who previously had: cancer; any metastasized cancer;radiotherapy or chemotherapy.All the patients and controls willbe subjected to the following:1.

Full history taking.2. Clinical examination3. Laboratory investigations:· Complete blood count (CBC)· Liver function test.·Abdominal ultrasound.

·Alpha fetoprotein(AFP).  ·Special Laboratory Investigations:Study of MiRNA 196a2 rs11614913 and MiRNA 34b/c rs4938723 Gene polymorphism using realtime reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) technique  EthicsThis study will be performed incompliance with the Helsinki Declaration after approval of the EthicalCommittee of Beni-suef University Hospitals with a written informed consentwill be obtained from all patients. Only patients fulfilling the inclusioncriteria will be included in the study                References1-World Health Organaization. Cancer.

Accessed16 April 2017. 2-Surveillance for hepatocellular carcinomais associated with increased survival: Results from a large cohort in theNetherlands van Meer S, de Man RA,Coenraad MJ, et al J Hepatol. 2015 Nov; 63(5):1156-63. 3-Alpha-foetoprotein (AFP): A multi-purpose marker inhepatocellular carcinoma. Sauzay C, Petit A, Bourgeois AM, et al; Clin Chim Acta. 2016 Dec1; 463():39-44. 4-Hammond, S. M.

An overview of microRNAs. AdvancedDrug Delivery Reviews 87, 3 (2015). 5- L. Shen, Y. Lin, Z.

Sun, X. Yuan, L. Chen, and B.

Shen,”Knowledge-guided bioinformatics model for identifying autism spectrum disorderdiagnostic microrna biomarkers,” Scientific Reports, vol. 6, article39663, 2016. 6-Yin W, Zhao Y, Ji YJ, Tong LP, Liu Y, He SX, Wang AQSerum/plasma microRNAs as biomarkers forHBV-related hepatocellular carcinoma in China.

Biomed Res Int. 2015;2015():965185


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