INTRODUCTIONPerceivedparenting styles can be defined as an option or a choice that is given to achild on the parenting style or parental behaviour during their childhood.
Inaccordance to the definition it very important to look into the perceivedparenting style. There are 4 types of perceived parenting styles: authoritative, authoritarian , permissive and uninvolved parenting styles. Several studieshave shown that rejective and overprotective parenting styles are dominantlyrelated with the child’s emotional intelligence(Fonte, 2009; Lopes et al.,2004) which will have a direct reflection towards their self esteem level andanxiety level in social situations. Percieved parenting style being theperception of parenting by the children themselves it is highly recommended tobe assessed . Looking into the theoretical model of perceived parenting style ,it predominantly consist of care and overprotection(Gordon Parker, 1983). Ianother study it has been found that rejective and overprotective parentingstyle is highly associated with major sessions of depression in children(Bemporad & Romano, 1992). Hence , low level of care and also overprotection shown by parents are likely toaffect their susceptibility to depression , low self esteem , low ability,emotional intelligence and also self image(Thammawijaya, 2012).
Moreover it isto be noted that children with lack of care and extreme control leads to beingdependant on parents and lack the ability to solve problems by themselves andon being autonomous.Looking into the models put forward by psychologists,Erik Erikson and others claim that there two aspects of parenting are especially important throughout childhoodand adolescents to the adult they become. 2 major dimensions of parenting:· Acceptance/responsiveness which is the support and affection a parentsdisplays to the child. Those Parent classified as accepting and responsive wouldhave characteristics as smiling at praises and encourages their children , thoseexpressing a great amount of warmth, at the same time becomes enough criticalwhen the child behaves in an unacceptable manner. At the same time looking intothe less accepting and comparatively unresponsive parents are majorly quick tocriticize, belittle , more of punishments or even ignorance to child. Apartfrom these they also are characterised by less communication to their childrenthat they are valued or loved. · Demandingness/ Control is a dimension ofparenting which states on the amount of supervision or regulation the parentsput to their children . When it comes to the child’s freedom of expression ,the controlling and demanding parents keep limits in ways of imposing demandsand extremely surveying their children’s behaviour so as to ensure that the notacceptable behaviours are not followed.
Apart from the dimensions , it turns out that the twomajor parenting dimensions are reasonably independent and there are 4 patternsof parenting styles: 1) Authoritarian: Authoritarian parenting is the kind of parenting where the parents appear not sensitive to a child’s conflicting viewpoints and suggestions, Instead they expect the child to accept their orders aslaw and their authority to be respected by them. It is a very restricting pattern of parenting in whichrules are imposed on the child by the parents, and expecting them to be obeyed,where explanations are not given , making the child to comply with all theregulations and often has to rely on punitive and forceful tactics to gaincompliance .2) Authoritative parenting: this is a parentingstyle where the parents are controlling but flexible as well where they ,makemany reasonable demands of their children. These parents are careful to providerationale for complying with the limits they set and they endure that theirchildren follow those guidelines. These parenting style involves more ofaccepting their children’s point of view and responds to those views. They alsoencourage their children’s participationin family decision making. 3) Permissiveparenting: These parenting style has more of accepting but lax pattern of parenting inwhich the demands made by the parents are less and permission to expression of their feelings aregiven.
And also the children’s activities are in a less monitoring pattern ,and rarely control over the child’sbehaviour. 4) Uninvolvedparenting: In recent years it has been seen through studies that the least successfulparenting is what might be termedUninvolved parenting which is termed to be an extremely lax and undemandingapproach towards the parenting style displayed by parents who have eitherrejected their children or with all the stressors and problems faced in theirlife, they don’t have much time or energy to spend to their children. (Maccoby& Martin, 1983). By the age of 3children of uninvolved parents looking into aggression and externalisingbehaviours such as temper tantrums are relatively high.
(Miller et al 1993).Further more the children undergone uninvolved parenting tend to be disruptiveand performs poorly in classroom (Eckenrode,Laird,& Doris, 1993).Apart from these they often become hostile , selfish andrebellious adolescents for whom the meaning of long range goals are lacking andare prone to commit anti social and delinquent acts such as, sexual misconduct,alcohol and drug abuse, truancy and a wide variety of criminal offenses( Kurdek& Fine, 1994 ; Pattreson , Reid & Dishion,1992) . In effect to thiskind of parenting , their children haveneglectful (“or even detached”) parents whose actions seems to be saying ” Idon’t care about you or what you do”- whichis understood as a message that undoubtedly shows resentment and willingness tostrike back at these aloof , showing out uncaring adversaries or at other authorityfigures.
Self esteem Is ones Belief in his/her abilities andhis/her worth or value seen by oneself. It can be explained as the extend towhich one accepts , respects and likes . High self esteem helps one to meeteveryday challenges and stay on board to become the self that one wants to be.Self esteem is not conceit or self absorption. Genuine self esteem is liking ,accepting and respecting oneself.
Those with low self esteem may react by:· Blaming others for their own weakness orfaults· Becoming easily frustrated or defensive bya situation· By Avoiding situations that make themuncomfortable· Feeling weak and incompetent· Feeling others don’t value them· Expressing few emotions· Being influenced easily by othersLow Self esteem often leads to conditions such as loneliness,anxiety , resentment, irritability and low life satisfaction. Having low selfesteem can affect ones career relationship and mental health problems . Majoraspects such as quality of decisions and actions an individual has taken ,which in turn can be traced back to low self esteem.
Duringyoung adolescence when level of self esteem is identified, Social anxiety is defined to be the fear one bears of beingjudged and evaluated negatively by others. Developing social anxiety leads one tofeel inadequate, inferior to others, feeling of embarrassment, humiliation andsense of depression. Social anxiety canalso be stated as the fear one holds to oneself towards social situationswhich involves interactions and involvementinteraction with other people.
It thus is considered to be a pervasive disorder seen to cause anxiety and fear in most andmajor seas of ones life. Social anxiety can be chronic because it cannot be got rid of on its own. People with social anxiety areconsidered to be shy , quiet , withdrawn, backward , more inhibitions,unfriendly mannerisms, too nervous, aloof and disinterested to socialactivities. Paradoxically, people facing social anxiety is observedto be the ones who wants to make friends, to be included in groups, and be involved and engaged in social interactions. But theones with social anxiety prevents themselves from being able to do the all theactivities they want to do. Youngadulthood: From the year 1995 , one of the main psychologists , Jeffrey JensenArnett, PhD, to know about the needs and wants of young adults at their presentdevelopmental stage conducted a research on 300 young adults, from age 18 to 29from cities around the nation for over a period of 5 years. He interviewed andquestioned them about what they wanted out of life for which he was struck bythe common element he found in all the answers was the ‘feeling in between’- afeeling that they explained to be pulling clear of struggles gone through adolescents and to the start offeeling responsible for themselves, where in they are independent but at thesame time closely sticking on to their parents and family.
Theyalso reported pondering their personal identity, a theme that surprised Arnett,Who thought most would have settled that question as adolescents. Working fromthose interviews and examining broad demographic indicators, Arnett proposed anew period of life span development he calls ” Emerging adulthood” Which EricErikson articulates to be called the Early Adulthood or young adulthood wheretheir psychosocial crisis is Intimacy versus Isolation. FiveFeatures of Emerging Adulthood· Age of identity exploration. Young peopleare deciding who they are and what they want out of work, school and love.· Age of instability.
The post- high schoolyears are marked by repeated resident changes, as young people either go tocollege, or live with friends or a romantic partner. For most , frequent movesend as families and careers are established in 30s.· Age of self focus. Freed of the parent-and society directed routine of school young people try to decide what theywant to do , where they want to go and who they want to be with- Before thosechoices get limited by the Constraints of marriage , children and a career.· Age of feeling in between . Many emergingadults say they are taking responsibility for themselves, but still notcompletely feel like an adult where in they are still attacjed and dependant ontheir parents and family.
· Age of possibilities. Optimism reigns.Most adults who gets into adulthood from adolescence believe they have goodchances of living ” better than their parents did “,and even if their parentsare separated or divorced they have an intense belief that they will find asoul mate for lifetime.