IntroductionLearning is a process that leads to change,which happens as a result of experience and increases thepossibility of improved performance and future learning.
Learning is thetransformative process of taking information that—when internalized andmixed with what we have experienced changes what we know and builds onwhat we do. It is based on effort, process, and reflection. The basicpurpose of this research study is to improve students learning at elementarylevel and to reduce their flaws at zero level with the help of cooperativelearning techniques. Ruth C. Clarkand Richard describe Learning involves strengtheningcorrect responses and weakening incorrect responses. Learning involvesadding new information to our memory.
Learning involves making sense ofthe presented material by attending to relevant information, mentallyreorganizing it, and connecting it with what we already know.Researchon cooperative learning was much rare before 1970, however since this date theamount and the quality of research on cooperative learning has greatly improvedgiven its great assessment and positive effects on education. Cooperativelearning is a teaching strategy that helps students work together as theylearn.
Research on classroom cooperative learning techniques, in whichstudents work in small groups and receive rewards or acknowledgement based ontheir group performance, has been increasing in the past few years. The patternof research findings supports the usefulness of cooperative learning methods ingeneral for increasing student achievement, positive race relations in schools,mutual concern among students, student self-esteem, and other positiveoutcomes.Cooperative learning is a successful teaching strategyin which small teams, each with students of different levels of ability, use avariety of learning activitiesto improve their understanding of a subject. Cooperative learning techniques place students of different races in learninggroupswhere each group member is given an equal rolein helping the group to achieve its goals.Cooperative learninghas been well recognized in the educational research as a successful pedagogyto improve students’ academic achievement.
Deutsch, (1949) describes, It is afundamental principle of cooperative learning that group members are linkedtogether in such a way that they cannot succeed unless everyone succeed, theywill actively assist each other to make sure that the assignment is done andthe purpose of the group achieved. Johnson & Johnson, (1994) has a view,”Cooperative learning is one of the two ways of organizing the learningenvironment of a classroom, the other being competitive. Kagan (1989)contributes that in cooperative learning the teacher designs the socialinteraction structures as well as learning activities. (Johnson & Johnson,(1994) describes, In cooperative learning environment, the goals of separateindividuals become so linked that there is a positive correlation between them;on the contrary, in a competitive conventional environment, the goals of thestudents are so linked that there is a negative correlation between their goalattainments. Cooperative learning establishes a community in which students canget help and support from other group members, Panitz offers a similardefinition; he goes on to add that the teacher maintains control of thelearning environment, designs learning activities, structures work teams, and,in his view, does not empower students.Objectives1- To examine the effect of cooperative learningon students’ achievement at elementary level.2- To compare the performance of students in theresult of the traditional and cooperative learning methods.Significance1.
Thisstudy is significant in local context, as previous studies carried out in thisaspect either deal with population of schools with science subjects orprospective teachers, while this study is an effort to prove that samephenomenon when applied at Elementary level in the subject of Education, isfruitful too So, this study is an effort to give new dimension by providingpositive results of cooperative learning activities on performance of students.2. Thisstudy will provide an insight to teacher educators, who can use its results todevelop attitude towards using cooperative learning methods. 3. The introduction of this strategy for thissubject will help in improving learning and academic achievement of thestudents.
4. This will also help in making this subjectmore interesting rather it was considered earlier by the students. HypothesisThere will be a statistically significantdifference in the mean score between control and experimental group. Studentsof experimental group will show positive attitude towards cooperative learningtechniques.Literature Review1. Webb and Palincsar, (1996).
Ingroups organized in this way, it is in group members’ interests to teach eachother, assess each other’s’ learning and ask for help from each other, andthese are the actions that lead to learning improvements.2. Rosenholtz& Simpson, (1984) state that the extent to which any student adopts amastery or performance goal direction depends on how each student concepts thesocial reality of the classroom for himself or herself.3. Slavin,(2011) says, Cooperative learning comprises instructional methods in whichteachers organize students into small groups, which then work together to helpone another learn academic content.4. Slavin(1995) explains there is little incentive for group members to explain conceptsto one another, and one or two group members may do all the work.5.
Slavin, Webb & Palincsar, (1996)Groups are satisfied based on the individual learning of all group members, noton a single group product.6. Kagan(1989) contributes that in cooperative learning the teacher designs the socialinteraction structures as well as learning activities.7. Johnson,Johnson and Holubec (1993) state that in cooperative learning students can makebest use of their own and each other’s learning when they work together.8. Battisch,(1994) explains according to currentresearch on intergroup relations, improved relations among groups is bestachieved through contact, and only through contact where members of differentgroups are of equal status and have communal goals.9.
Slavin, Madden, & Datnow, (2007)Success for All was clearly designed as a demo of what schools could look likeif they used programs and practices proven to be effective in severe researchin all aspects of their functioning.10. Johnson& Johnson, (1999), Cooperative learning occurs when students work togetherto accomplish shared learning goals.11. .Matthews, (1992) Each student can then achieve his or her learning goal if andonly if the other group members achieve theirs.12.
Johnsonand Johnson (1999). A task for group discussion anddetermination (if possible), requiring face-to-face communication, anatmosphere of cooperation and mutual helpfulness, and individualresponsibility.13.
Goodsell, Maher, and Tinto (1992)Cooperative learning also falls in the more general category of collaborativelearning, which is described as working in groups of two or more, equallysearching for understanding, solutions, or meanings, or creating a product.14. Johnson.(1991), It is important to also consider what cooperative learning is not. it is nothaving students sit side-by-side at the same table and talk with each other asthey do their individual projects, having students do a task individually withinstructions that those who finish first are to help the slower students, orassigning a report to a group where one student does all of the work and theothers put their names on it.Research GapIn Pakistan, there does not seem to be much research oncooperative learning. Therefore, it is prime need to conduct studies so as toexplore the usefulness of various kinds of cooperative learning for differentsubject areas at different levels of education.
In fact, elementary level isthe most critical level of education requiring modern methods to improve itsquality.Cooperative Learning techniques has been focused athigher level. This research will prove significant at elementary level. Alittle research has been done on effect of cooperative learning Techniques on students’ achievement at elementarylevel. CooperativeLearning techniques has been focused at higher level.
This research will provesignificant at elementary level.ResearchQuestions1. Is there any significant difference in achievementof students who have been taught by the cooperative learning method, and thosewho are taught by traditional methods?2. Whichtype of cooperative learning techniques can be applied at elementary level?3. Isthere any effect of cooperative learning techniques conducted in differentsubjects at elementary level? ResearchMethodologyFollowing study is an effort to determine effect ofcooperative learning techniques on students’ achievement in subject ofEducation. Population of my research is all governmentelementary schools of sheikhupura. With the help of this research, theresearcher and another teacher will beable to find out different strategies that will make their students confidentin cooperative learning techniques. Quasi experimental design,with pre/posttest of control and experimental group will be used for thispurpose.
This design is selected because it controlsmany variables varying its external and internal validity. Subjects of Englishand Islamiyat will be taught. Sample willconsist of 40 female students enrolled in class six of Govt M.
C GirlsElementary School Ahmed Pura Sheikhupura. On the basis of scores in pre-test,students will be divided in experimental and control groups. Multiple cooperativelearning techniques including Student Teams AchievementDivision (STAD), Teams-Games-Tournaments (TGT) and Jigsaw will be performedfor 8 weeks with experimental group. This research will be purely quantitative.To control extra variables, students will be selected randomly. Control groupwill be taught with traditional method and experimental group will be taughtwith cooperative learning techniques.
Afterwards posttest will be administeredon both groups in order to identify difference in achievement. Independentsample t -test will be applied to find difference between two groups before andafter intervention. The result will show that there is a significant differencein scores of control and experimental group in post-test. LimitationsDue to lack of timeand finance this study will be limited to only one elementary school of Punjabgovernment in district Sheikhupura on convenient basis. Forty female studentsof class 8th in Government M.C Girls Elementary school Ahmad PuraSheikhupura, will be selected for this research. Twenty students will be incontrol group and 20 students will be in experimental group. Furthermore, onlyfemale students will be selected.
Data will be collected through pre-test,post-test. Bibliography1. Ahmad, F. (2010). Effect of CooperativeLearning on Students’ Achievement at Elementary Level. InternationalJournal of Learning, 17(3).
2. Antil, L., Jenkins, J., Wayne, S., &Vadasy, P.
(1998). Cooperative learning: Prevalence, conceptualizations, andthe relation between research and practice. AmericanEducational Research Journal, 35(3), 419-454.3. Cheng,H. (2006). A comparison between cooperative learning and traditional,whole-class methods-teaching English in a Junior College.
Academic Journal of Kang-Ning, 3, 69-82.4. Cohen, E. (1994a). Restructuring theclassroom: Conditions for productive small groups. Review of Educational Research, 64, 1-35.5. Davidson, J.
A., & Versluys, M. (1999).Effects of Brief Training in Cooperation and Problem Solving on Success inConflict Resolution. Peace and Conflict:Journal of Peace Psychology, 5 (2), 137 – 148.6. Doymus, K. (2008a).
Teaching chemical bondingthrough jigsaw cooperative learning. Researchin Science & Technological Education, 26(1), 47-57.7. Hwang,N.-C.R., Lui, G., & Tong, M.
Y. J. W. (2005). An Empirical Test ofCooperative Learning in a Passive Learning Environment. Issues in Accounting Education, 20(2), 151-165.
8. Johnson, D. W., Johnson, R. T., & Stanne,M.
B. (2000). Cooperative learning methods: A meta-analysis.
9. Kose,S., Sahin, A., Ergun, A., & Gezer, K. (2010).
The effects of cooperativelearning experience on eighth grade students’ achievement and attitude towardscience. Education, 131(1), 169-180.10. Li, M. P., & Lam, B.
H. (2013). Cooperativelearning. The Active Classroom,The Hong Kong Institute of Education.11. Nguyen,P. M., Elliott, J.
G., Terlouw, C., & Pilot, A. (2009a).
Neocolonialism ineducation: Cooperative learning in anAsian context. Cooperative Education, 45(1), 109-130.12.
Putnam, J. W. (1993). CooperativeLearning and Strategies for Inclusion: Celebrating Diversity in the Classroom.Children, Youth & Change: Sociocultural Perspectives.
Paul H. BrookesPublishing Co., PO Box 10624, Baltimore, MD 21285-0624.13. Sapon-Shevin, M., Ayres, B., & Duncan, J.
(1994). Cooperative learning and inclusion. Creativity andcollaborative learning: A practical guide to empowering students and teachers,45-58.14.
Slavin, R. E. (1996).
Research on cooperativelearning and achievement: What we know, what we need to know. Contemporaryeducational psychology, 21(1), 43-69.15. Slavin, R. E. (2008). Cooperative learning,success for all, and evidence-based reform in education.
Education etdidactique, 2(2), 149-15716. Slavin,R. E.
(2011). Instruction Based on Cooperative Learning. In R. E.
Mayer &P. A. Alexander (Eds.), Handbook of Research on Learning and Instruction (pp.344-360). New York: Taylor & Francis.
ProposedChapters for ThesisChapter 1IntroductionThis chapter will consist on introduction of topic,statement of the problem and its background, objectives & significance ofstudy, Hypothesis, research questions, definitions of terms and delimitationsof the study. Chapter 2LiteratureReviewThis chapter will incorporate all theexisting literature review related to the topic and highlight the area ofpresent research also. Chapter 3ResearchMethodology / Data CollectionThis chapter will encompass of researchdesign, population, sample, data collection, validity and reliability of theresearch instruments used in this study. Chapter4Results& Discussion/Data Analysis,Discussion and ConclusionIt willinclude the analysis of data with exhaustive discussion to explore the topic inall possible dimensions.
Conclusion will base on the findings extracted fromthe process of research.Chapter 5References/ BibliographyThis chapter will include the detaileddescription of the references/bibliography in alphabetical order. Report of the Supervisor ___________________________________________________________________________Name & Signature of the Supervisor Dr.Ijaz Ahmad Tatlah Time Table/Work planSemester 3 (16 Weeks) Week Work / Activity Comments by supervisor 03 Weeks Allotment of Research Topic &Supervisor Do 01Week Finalization of Research Topic Do 04Weeks Literature Review and Methodology Do 06 Weeks Sample Collection and Preparation for Analysis Do 01Week 1st Seminar Do Smester 4 (16 Weeks) Week Work / Activity Comments by supervisor 08 Weeks Sample Analysis and interpretation Do 01Week 2nd Seminar Do 02Weeks First Draft Do 01 Week Second Draft Do 02Weeks Final Draft Do 02 Weeks Submission of Thesis Do Name & Signature of the CandidateMunazzaBashir