INTRODUCTION:            In Body Area Network (BAN), sensorsare implanted under the skins. Then the values of Patient Health Information isretrieved and these datas are send to the hospital server. According to thedata which was received, doctor prescribe the medicine for the patients.Patient health information contains the details of Blood Pressure, Heart rate,Respiration rate.

During the process of collecting the data, nodes may behacked by the attacker in the network. Attack may be a Replay attack, Denial ofService attack, Sybil attack, collusion attack, collision attack, node captureattack, black hole attack, stolen verifier attack, impersonation attack, insiderattack 1. Due to this reasons data may be lost. So it lead to the incorrecttreatment to the patient from the doctor side. Wrong treatment affect thepatient health, sometimes it lead to the death of the patient.

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Similarly, Dueto the low energy, the node may be shutdown and the data may not send. Sosecurity, energy is the main issue in BAN. In our proposed system, Securityissue is solved. Our proposed approach is used to send the data from the clientside (Mobile Phone) (ie) Control Unit to the server (Server side) in a securemanner.

In general, BAN is in three tier architecture: WBAN sensor, PersonalServer, Medical Server2. WBAN Sensor tier consist of Wearable sensors whichare capable of sense and communicate. Personal Server it interface the sensornodes and mobile phone or ZigBee. Medical Server includes the database in thehospital server.

 RELATED WORK:              In paper 3 security is provided byfour phases. In phase 1, system initialization is performed as distributing theshadow ID and emergency key values by the Key Generation Center (KGC). In phase2, private key is generated based on the user attributes and it is used for thedecryption process. Then session key is encrypted with the access treestructure. In phase 4, two phase commitment is established and it ensures thereliable and secure connection.  MASK-BAN 4 is implemented in 4 phases.

In theinitial authenticated pairwise key generation phase, adaptive secret bitgeneration (ASBG) technique is used to generate the pairwise key. In theauthenticated secret capacity broadcast phase, each node has the knowledge ofall the channel capacity information and the details of the trusted neighbors.In deciding maximum Entropy phase, maximum size of the secret key is found andmaximum entropy is also found. In key aggregation broadcast phase, Maximum pathis found. The key values of that path is concatenated with the secret key. By using elliptic curve cryptography 5, an explicitmutual authentication between the nodes are established.

It includes fourphases. System initialization phase performs offline tasks and distributes theidentities to the sensor and coordinator nodes. Authentication phase is basedon the timestamp values. It is based on secrecy of the one-way hash function, ellipticcurve discrete logarithm problem and encryption algorithm. It resistance to thedata replay attack, legal node masquerade attack, Sybil attack, fabricationattack and provide privacy.  One Time Padvalue (OTP) value 6 is used to provide security. It have been generated by anadequate random number generator.

One copy has to be stored on the base stationand another copy has to be transferred to the node. It is able to recharge OTPsto a node, a secure channels has to be used. Encryption is done by XOR thevalue of OTP and the plaintext. Decryption is done by XOR the value of OTP andthe cipher text. OTP used only once. But copies of the OTP are destroyedimmediately after use.

This results in a cipher text that has no relation withthe plaintext when the key is unknown. Replace the memory card is the one wayof exchanging the pad. OTP generated in a random manner so it provides moresecurity.             Privacy of the node is established7 by using anonymous authentication protocol. It consist of three phases.

InUser Registration Phase, legal user should registered to the gateway. Duringthis phase, the gateway directly access a sensor data. Remedy phase providesthe remedy for DOS attack in WSN based anonymous authentication protocols.Shadow Id and Emergency key is used in this phase. Remedy request is send tothe gateway. In Re-Loading Phase, the shadow identity and emergency key pairsare reloaded with the new pairs.

  ALARM-NET 8system provides pervasive and adaptive medical sytem for continuous monitoringusing environmental and wearable sensors. ALARM-NET implements a WSN for smarthealthcare by creating a medical history log, while preserving the patient’sprivacy. Authorized care providers may monitor resident health and activitypatterns, such as circadian rhythm changes, which may signify changes inhealthcare needs. Sensor can sense even a little changes in the health values.

 SMART 9, it was developed to monitor physiologicalsignals from patients in the waiting areas of emergency departments. There havebeen various cases in which the medical team has found that the patient’shealth deteriorates rapidly while waiting in an emergency room. Since time isof an essence in this situation, patient’s lives cannot be risked because ofthe lack of attention provided in emergency rooms. To help in solving this problem,this system can be used to collect data from various patients waiting in anEmergency room, and wirelessly send it to a central computer that collects andanalyzes the data. Calculations are performed at the central server to issue analert signal if the health of a particular patient deteriorates. This way,patients can receive treatment before the condition worsens. CareNet 10 developed an integrated wirelessenvironment used for remote health care systems.

It offers features such as:high reliability and performance, scalability, security and integration withweb-based portal systems. High reliability is achieved using a 2-tier architecture.The portal allows caregivers to efficiently access the sensor network datathrough a unified medical record system.


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