INTRODUCTIONTodaydemand of automobiles is more due to population growth has result in greatdemand for petroleum products. With crude oil reserves estimated to last forfew decades, there have been many researcher find alternate fuels. The depletion ofcrude oil could reason a primary effect on the transportation sector. Biodieselis a clean burning alternative biofuel, which is produced from Sunflower,karanja, jatropha, waste cooking oil, thumba, soybeans, animal fats, alge etc.
These are domestic and renewable source. The extracted crude oil cannot be usedas a directly in diesel engine because it has a high viscosity; due to highviscosity of pure vegetable oils it will be responsible for high enginedeposits and lubricating oil thickening. That would reduce the fuel atomizationand increase fuel spray penetration. To create a biodiesel blend it can beblended with conventional diesel. Biodiesel is manufacture from a chemicalprocess which is known as transesterification. Chemically biodiesel is referredas mono alkyl esters of long chain fatty acid derived from renewable biologicalsources. It can be directly used in the compression ignition engine.
Biodieselfuel is a clean burning fuel that comes from 100% renewable resources.Biodiesel fuel is future of the world. Biodiesel derived from vegetable oils,waste cooking oil is the alternative fuel to blend with diesel. Following reasonbiodiesel can be used in the engine.(1) Biodieselis made from vegetable, waste cooking oil, alge etc.(2) Biodieselcan be used without any changes in existing engine. (3) Biodieselhave no contained sulfur, aromatic, hydrocarbons, and particulate matter. A lot of research workhas been carried out to use vegetable oil both in its pure form and blendedform.
Studies have shown that the usage of vegetable oils in neat form ispossible but not preferable with the advent of the industrial revolution, theuse of energy in the form of fossil fuels began, this occurred in stages, fromthe exploration of coal deposits to the exploitation of oil and natural gasbut, how long can we depend on this declining fossil fuels to run our carengine, to light our kitchen stove. The secondary viscosity of vegetable oilsand the low instability influences those atomization Furthermore spread examplefor fuel, prompting inadequate burning What’s more extreme carbon deposits,injector gagging What’s more piston ring staying. Those routines utilized todecrease viscosity need aid mixing for diesel, emulsification, pyrolysis,transesterification.
Sunfloweroil can be effectively replacing diesel fuel. Application of diesel oil is inthe transport sector, agriculture form and industries for generatingelectricity, running pumps and tractors. The entire use of diesel oil can besubstituted with vegetable oil. The properties of sunflower oil very closetogether diesel. The sunflower oil can also be converted to bio-diesel and usedin automobile sector.There arevarious advantages of using sunflower oil:(1) The cost of 1 liter sunflower oil isapprox. Rs.
80/- hence it is approx. same price of diesel.(2) Sunflower oil as fuels can providegood lubrication to the engine.
(3) No toxic gases emission, nogreenhouse gas emission. (4) Sunflower seeds can be grown in waste landsand other lands with low nutritional content. The plant is also a nitrogenfixer. (5) Thedependence on sunflower oil would generate employment in rural areas.
Biofuelsare fossil fuel substitutes that can be made from a range of agricultural cropsand other sources of biomass. Any hydrocarbon fuel that is produced fromorganic matter (living or once living material) in a short period of time –days, weeks, or even months, is considered as biofuel. They are considered asan alternative source of energy Importance: · Energy security – increasing oil prices,need for alternative source of energy · To decrease greenhouse gas emission · To promote rural development Block diagram of biofuel:1.1Biodiesel can be used inits pure form (B100) or blended with petroleum diesel. Common blends include B2(2% biodiesel), B5 (5% biodiesel), and B20 (20% biodiesel). B00 fuel (Pure Diesel) B10 fuel (90% Diesel + 10% Biodiesel) B15 fuel (85% Diesel + 15% Biodiesel) B20 fuel (80% Diesel + 20% Biodiesel) B25 fuel (75% Diesel + 25% Biodiesel) B30 fuel (70% Diesel + 30% BiodieselMostly used blends up toB5. Some approve blends up to B20.
Check with your owner’s manual or automakerto determine the right blend for your vehicle. Using the wrong blend coulddamage your engine and void the manufacturer’s warranty. Basically two type ofbiofuel first generation and second generation bio fuels.
In First generationbiofuel is made from sugar, starchy crops, vegetable oil or animal fat usingconventional technology like biodiesel, biogas, bio alcohols and Secondgeneration biofuel is produced from suitable feedstock like bioethanol, biohydrogen diesel, algae fuel, cellulose fuel,wood diesel.Theestimated consumption of diesel in the world at the end of the year 2005 was960 billion liters. On the other hand, the production of biodiesel during thesame year was 4.
2 billion liters . For example, assuming that 2% of diesel wasreplaced with biodiesel, it would mean an increase of 15 billion liters in thebiodiesel global production. In biodiesel plant different type of biodiesel oiluse according to their availability, cost, efficiency and environment concern. OILS MILLION TONS Palm oil 43.20 Soy oil 38.11 Rapeseed oil 19.38 Sunflower oil 11.
45 Cotton oil 4.94 Palm oil (seed) 5.10 Peanut oil 4.93 Coconut oil 3.62 Olive oil 2.97 Table1.World production of vegetable oils, 2008/2009.
Palm oil: Palmoil is retrieved from the Palm fruit. The scientific name of palm oil is elaeisguineensis and its popular name: African oil palm. Columbia is largest producerof palm oil.Rapeseed or canola oil: Rapeseedis a specie oil seed in the cruciferous family. Many of the species of this familyhave been their roots, stems, flowers and seeds. When the seeds of rapeseed arecrushed we can obtain oil. Sunfloweroil: Sunflower belongs at the family of asteraceae, whose scientific name is Helianthus annuus. Sunflower oilextracted from sunflower seeds.
Sunflower oil is high quality nature due to lowpercentage of saturated fatty acids and a high percentage of unsaturated fattyacids. KaranjaOil: Karanja oil is extracted from seeds of Karanja tree.Its scientific name is Pongamia glabra.
Karanja seed commonly found in india. KaranjaOil is used in agriculture and pharmacy form such as neem oil. Fossil fuels: Fossil fuels concern with any fuel that comesfrom the earth that’s generated by the fossilization method such as coal, natural gas and crude oil. Fossil fuel generateby animal, plant in the earth thousand years ago. Fossil fuel is non renewablefuel.1.1 Advantagesof fossil fuels: A major advantage of fossil fuels is their capacity togenerate huge amounts of electricity in just a single location.
Fossil fuels are very easy to find. When coal is used in power plants, they are very cost effective. Coal is also in abundant supply. Transporting oil and gas to the power stations can be made through the use of pipes making it an easy task. Power plants that utilize gas are very efficient.
Power stations that make use of fossil fuel can be constructed in almost any location. This is possible as long as large quantities of fuel can be easily brought to the power plants.1.
2 Disadvantages of fossil Fuels· Pollution is a major disadvantage of fossil fuels. This isbecause they give off carbon dioxide when burned thereby causing a greenhouseeffect. This is also the main contributory factor to the global warmingexperienced by the earth today.
· Coal also produces carbon dioxide when burned compared toburning oil or gas. Additionally, it gives off Sulphur dioxide, a kind of gasthat creates acid rain. · Environmentally, the mining of coal results in thedestruction of wide areas of land. Mining this fossil fuel is also difficultand may endanger the lives of miners.
Coal mining is considered one of the mostdangerous jobs in the world. · Power stations that utilize coal need large amounts of fuel.In other words, they not only need truckloads but trainloads of coal on aregular basis to continue operating and generating electricity. This only meansthat coal-fired power plants should have reserves of coal in a large area nearthe plants location. · Use of natural gas can cause unpleasant odors and someproblems especially with transportation. · Use of crude oil causes pollution and poses environmentalhazards such as oil spills when oil tankers, for instance, experience leaks ordrown deep under the sea. Crude oil contains toxic chemicals which cause airpollutants when combusted.
1.3 Need ofalternative fuelsTheworld’s energy requirement for transportation is met from non-renewable fossilfuels. In the face of shrinking supplies and rising demand, oil prices areexpected to continue to rise. In addition, growing concerns about human inducedclimate change, as evidenced by rising temperatures and environmentalpollution, are further driving the impetus for non-polluting energy sources.One such source is ethanol from plant biomass/grain and biodiesel fromprocessing edible and no edible vegetable oils. Oil is running out. In theshort term it will continue to go up in price and in the middle distant futureit will be too expensive to burn.
The use of bio fuels will help extend thelife time of our oil supply, but eventually we will need to replace oil –whatever that replacement is it needs to be sustainable.Due to Rapidly growth of population demand ofenergy is higher in the world. Limited resources are available in the word.Transportation is very important element now days in the world. Trucks, publicbuses trains, planes and submarine are all a daily part of our lives.
In theautomobiles, buses, trucks, train commonly used gasoline fuel fortransportation Gasoline is a refined product of petro diesel. Diesel fuelmainly used for heavy duty vehicles such as buses, trucks, train etc. Gasolineoil is the most hazardous fuel because it emits higher level of toxic gases inthe atmosphere.
Gasoline and diesel exhaust gases create negatively affect ofair quality and damage the environment. These particular gases are notcompatible with the respiratory systems and processes of life on Earth.Conventional petro diesel is limited resources available. . After sometimesfossil fuels are depict from the world. Thus alternative fuel is reducing thedependency of petro diesel fuel.
The main alternative fuel is compressednatural gas (CNG). Although natural gas is a fossil fuel it is, depict aftersometimes but CNG emits less nitrogen oxide (NOx) and particulate matter (PM)than gasoline. Natural gas buses have been proven to produce an average of 97%less particulate matter (PM), 84% less carbon monoxide (CO) and 58% less nitrogenoxide (NOx).