INTRODUCTION:

Various methods and compounds are used now a day to
cure multiple disorders. Ample of drugs have been designed, antibiotics have
been made, which have been successful in curing many diseases. Only one
disadvantage it creates is the bacterial resistance which the bacterium attains
against the antibiotics. This creates a problem and a question mark to the
production of more effective drugs against which resistance can’t be developed
easily.

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An effective solution to this developing issue can
be production of biosurfactants. Various microorganisms around us are capable
of producing biosurfactants, The need is to use it effectively against the
pathogenic bacteria and other inflammatory causes, its applications in the protection
of petrochemical industry and environment. Microorganisms produce various wide varieties
of surface actives molecules (SAC’s) i.e. Biosurfactants and also of have
applications in the field of emulsification, foaming, detergency, dispersion
and it also solubilizes hydrophobic compounds. (Gudiña, Teixeira et
al. 2016) Microbial compounds that exhibit effective surface
and emulsifying activities are known to be biosurfactants. These are amphiphilic compounds which are mainly produced
on the living surfaces i.e.; here microbial surfaces and they are secondary
metabolites and are synthesized non- ribosomally by either actively growing or
resting microbial cells. (Ndlovu, Rautenbach et al. 2017) It contains
hydrophobic and hydrophilic moieties, the hydrophilic moiety which is having an
acid, peptide that can be cations or anions, mono, di or polysaccharides and a hydrophobic
moiety of unsaturated or saturated hydrocarbon chains or fatty acids. Its
structural composition gives them the property of lowering the surface and
interfacial tension, which eventually helps liquids form micelles and micro emulsions
between two different phases.

Biosurfactants comprises a wide range of chemical
structures such as glycolipids, lipopeptides, polysaccharide-protein complexes,
phospholipids, fatty acids and neutral lipids(Banat I.M.
Franzetti, al et al. 2010) Microbial surface active compounds or
biosurfactants are a group of structurally diverse molecules produced by
different microorganisms and are mainly classified on the basis of their
chemical structure and microbial origin. Biosurfactants are produced by
different microorganisms such as bacteria, fungi and yeast. (Cooper, Macdonald
et al.1981)

In present era in which everyone is facing various
issued related to pollution and hazardous chemicals everywhere whether it be
water, soil etc. Biosurfactants are having various applications in different
fields. It has environmental applications such as it helps in bioremediation of
the petroleum hydrocarbons in ground water and soil, biodegradation of the
groundwater and soil and its hazardous compounds, and as a biosurfactant it
does enhanced soil washing. Petroleum industry, environmental remediation, food
processing, agro industry, cosmetics and pharmaceuticals it is useful in all
these applications. Its industrial applications is mostly used for the oil
recovery and processing , because traditional recovery can only recover up to
40-45% of the crude oil so this is a major advantage over the traditional recovery.
(Shibulal, Al-Bahry et al. 2014)

It has biomedical applications when these biosurfactants
are present in hetrogenous environment or system; it tends to aggregate at the
phase boundaries or interfaces. Surfactants increase the solubility of hydrophilic
molecules hence decreasing both the surface and interfacial tension at the oil
water interface, which gives it a property to form micelles. (Banat, Franzetti et
al. 2010) As we know human pathogens are treated using
various antibiotics, but an issue which always occurs is the bacterial
resistance towards the antibiotics. Here biosurfactants which are a much better
option than antibiotics can be introduced and used effectively in various
disorders, diseases or any kind of inflammation. These compounds are found to
have several properties like anti-adhesive, anti- biofilm , activities which is
useful in removal of adhesion and colonization of pathogenic microorganisms,
and also the removal of the pathogenic biofilms, it also has anti-fungal,
anti-viral ,anti-cancerous properties. (Gudiña, Teixeira et
al. 2016) Some lipopeptides produced by a marine organism was
found be active against many multi-drug resistant pathogenic strains, which
again makes it advantageous over several antibiotics against which many
pathogens have been resistant. There are various biosurfactants which can be
used wisely against pathogenic bacteria that are rhamnolipids, trehalolipids,
sophroplipids, and mannosyl erythritol lipids (MELs). (Ndlovu, Rautenbach
et al. 2017) But the most widely studied biosurfactants consists
of glycolipids, lipopeptides and surfactin. This far we know biosurfactants
have both hydrophilic and lipophilic domains They have major function in pharmaceutical
processing, as they improve the solubility of drugs, particularly those drugs which
are poorly soluble in water. This lead to the need for other substitutes  like biosurfactants(bioactive agents).It also
increases the stability of encapsulated drugs and even the rate of diffusion
and effect the thermodynamics of the drugs. The most common use of surfactants
can be done as effective drug delivery vehicles.

 

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