IntroductionThermodynamics generally begins in the nineteenthcentury when Otto von Guericke designed and construct the world’s first vacuumpump. It is based on laws of universal applicabilityand is a branch of physics that study work and energy of a system.
Thermodynamic can be describe as a collectionof laws and principles the illustrate the flow of interchange of energy, heatand matter in a system of interest. By understandingthermodynamics theory and principles, it would allow researchers and scientiststo determine if a chemical reaction or process will happen spontaneously. However, thermodynamics is not able to approachthe chemical process or reaction rates. Anythermodynamics system can be explain using four laws of thermodynamics. The most common laws of thermodynamics are asfollow: the first law of thermodynamics states that the total amount of energyin an isolated system is conserved, though the form of the energy may change; thesecond law of thermodynamic explains that in all natural processes, the entropyof the universe increases. The thermodynamic concept of the system is the portionof the universe of interest. In a closedsystem, no exchange of energy or matter can enter the system.
In an isolated system, the energy exchange occurs. In an open system, the energy or matter exchangeoccurs.Thermodynamic quantities describe energy changes inliving systems using Gibbs free energy, enthalpy and entropy. Gibbs free energy describes the amount ofenergy capable of doing work during a reaction at constant temperature andpressure. Enthalpy is the heat contentof a system.
When a chemical reactionreleases heat, it is exothermic and has a negative. Entropy describes the randomness or disorder ofa system. When the products of areaction are less complex and more disordered than the reactants, the reactionproceeds with a gain in entropy.The application of thermodynamics to any actual problembegins with the identification of a specific body of matter as the center of study.