Introduction

Thermodynamics generally begins in the nineteenth
century when Otto von Guericke designed and construct the world’s first vacuum
pump.  It is based on laws of universal applicability
and is a branch of physics that study work and energy of a system.  Thermodynamic can be describe as a collection
of laws and principles the illustrate the flow of interchange of energy, heat
and matter in a system of interest.  By understanding
thermodynamics theory and principles, it would allow researchers and scientists
to determine if a chemical reaction or process will happen spontaneously.  However, thermodynamics is not able to approach
the chemical process or reaction rates.  Any
thermodynamics system can be explain using four laws of thermodynamics.  The most common laws of thermodynamics are as
follow: the first law of thermodynamics states that the total amount of energy
in an isolated system is conserved, though the form of the energy may change; the
second law of thermodynamic explains that in all natural processes, the entropy
of the universe increases.   

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The thermodynamic concept of the system is the portion
of the universe of interest.  In a closed
system, no exchange of energy or matter can enter the system.  In an isolated system, the energy exchange occurs.  In an open system, the energy or matter exchange
occurs.

Thermodynamic quantities describe energy changes in
living systems using Gibbs free energy, enthalpy and entropy.  Gibbs free energy describes the amount of
energy capable of doing work during a reaction at constant temperature and
pressure.  Enthalpy is the heat content
of a system.  When a chemical reaction
releases heat, it is exothermic and has a negative.  Entropy describes the randomness or disorder of
a system.  When the products of a
reaction are less complex and more disordered than the reactants, the reaction
proceeds with a gain in entropy.

The application of thermodynamics to any actual problem
begins with the identification of a specific body of matter as the center of study.

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