consent is a process to obtain a permission from a person to take part in
research activities/medical procedures. This is to ensure the person agree for medical
interventions or disclosing information when needed.  This process is based on guidelines from
medical ethic and research ethic. When obtaining an informed consent the person
must understand the reasons he/she included on that research. Clear explanation
including risks and benefits must be explain by the researcher. The person also
need to be informed that he/she can reject to be included inside the research
project before the project started. He/she also can quit from the research
project during the process  without
objection from the researcher. In other situation, if a person unable to give
informed consent due to mentally disorder, parents or legal guardians of the
child can sign the informed consent on behalf of that person. The parents or
legal guardians also need to well informed regarding the situations that needed
them to sign on behalf of that person. In medical field, consents can be
assumed via the doctrine of implied consent to prevent death or loss of body
parts. For example when unconscious person may die without immediate treatment
the doctors may do the best to safe person life. This is occurs because they
don’t have enough time to look for family members to ask for consent as time is
gold for that particular patient.

signing the informed consent form the person must fully understand the cons and
prons by performing that action. Check your name spelling and identification
number, ensure its correct for future reference. Make sure you have the copy of
the informed consent to protect our self.

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for getting informed consent in research on human objects such as religious
influences false expectations and language barrier. For example, Jehovah’s
witnesses refuse blood transfusion.  They
seen it as a sin by accepting blood transfusion willingly and without regret.
On this situation medical practitioner have to respect patient’s request. Even
though the Church would not take disciplinary actions against the witness
somehow they still not agree for blood transfusion. Many people have false
expectations for the experiment outcomes. People afraid of being treated as
mere “experimental model”. They also refuse to sign for informed
consent due to historical evidences of clinical trial fraud and misconduct that
can lead to disability or death. Getting informed consent from old people of
Chinese communities may lead to language barrier as some of them do not
understand english or malay. This can lead to misunderstanding due to incorrect
or inadequate language translations. Many people withdraw in later stages of
ongoing clinical studies because they not fully aware what they are signing


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