Industrializationin general terms means technological innovations which are an alternate way touse a machine for human skills. During 1871, a lot of progress happenedin the economy and it grew at a stagnant rate. The industries startedgrowing and the industrialization focused more on steel, machine tools, andchemicals. Invention and rapid development in the areas of railways,steamships, electric production and transportation took place. Some of thereasons for the success of industrialization was its dependency on massproduction, cheap production, and efficient production. Moreover,Industrialization proved to be beneficial for every single citizen in variousforms. By the 1870’s Europe was still under Britain as Britain was itsindustrial leader, though other parts of European nations were rapidly closingthe gap.
Continental Europeincludes all states excluding all the islands. Industrialization hadtaken place between the time period of 1871 to 1914 in many parts of Europesuch as Germany, Belgium, and France. Growth in industrialization happened when there was a rise inliberalism and when internal markets were created. After 1815, ContinentalEuropean nations had three advantages due to development in industrializationare:1.
Due to the strong independentgovernment, countries like France and Russia was able to promote economicgrowth by using the power of the state and also they were able to catch up withBritain in the long run.2. British counterparts were used as anidea for continental capitalists so that they would not suffer slow developmentwhich was going in Britain and even that they did not have to undergo the trialand error method.3. Continental European nations had beeneasy due to the development of industrialization to survive and adapt to thechanging market.
Germany wastransformed to a technological and industrial empire and its per capita waseven higher than that of France during 1870 to 1917, and then it started togrow rapidly. Because of the war between Prussia, France, and Austria, Germanywas not able to grow much before 1870. Moreover, by 1871 Germany had unifiedand new confederation was formed.
The economy had started to flourish duringthat period of time and there was an increase in the population and even theindustrialization has started to grow after 1871. However, the rise in wages ofthose employees in the industrial sector also occurred during that periodof time. There was a greater size of production in output which was due to theLabor productivity which had increased by 1.5 percent each year. In addition,with the beginning of the railway investment, the economic boom had begun withthe annual rate of growth being 4.6 percent in 1870 to 1874. During 1870especially, the railway rate had completed 1500 kilometers when it had reachedto its highest peak in 1874 but after that, it decreased in the next year.Until 1880, the net domestic product stayed at the same level and had increasedthereafter at an average rate of 2.
5 percent. Moreover, the investment into theindustry between the time periods of 1870 to 1875 was 10.6 percent, while beingmuch higher during the year 1880’s being 41.4 percent. As there was a rise inexports, the country had started to recover. From the year 1907 to 1913, Germanexports were higher than that of French by 60 percent. Coal, sugar, potatoes,and steel were the most important product of exports during 1890’s.
As themoney supply had risen rapidly there was a decline in the interest rates. From 1887to 1890 which is after seven years there was another boom in Germany and atthat time 948 stock companies were founded, some small crisis happened in thenext two years which had slowed down the process of industrial development, butfrom 1892 to 1913, net domestic product went up to 3.3 percent. Hence, thegreatest economic prosperity took place between the time periods of 1896to 1899, when 1129 new stockcompanies were then founded.Both the steelproduction and iron production had risen between the time period of 1879 and1882. At that period of time, the steel production then had doubled and ironproduction had risen about 50%. When they had compared the annual averageoutput of steel of Germany to that of Britain, Germany was 75,000 tons andBritain was 40,000 tons. We can say that Germany grew more rapidly than that ofBritain overall.
Even in the electric power sector, Germany was more ahead ofBritain as in 1913, Germany was producing 8,000 million kilowatt hours whichmeans that 20% more energy than the sum of all three: Britain, France, andItaly. One of the most important points noted at that period of time was eventhe education sector. Even in the chemical industries where the educationsystem was the basis for the extension of these industries. All the technological innovation,the improvements in the education system and the rapid rise in population toproduce more and to export and influence the market. The success inindustrialization had basically taken in the raw material sector like steel,coal, heavy chemicals and engineering products.
French industry was also one of the mostimportant in the development of industrialization. In the first three-quartersof the nineteenth century, France was the most industrialized country in Europebut later the situation was changed and it had faced a period of “retardation”.After 1870, economic development started to rise to a steady state.
There was asmall increase in population, raw materials, Labor force. People overthere mainly focused on the quality without considering the costs of productionwhich was the main causes in the economic development. The population startedto increase slowly, the population had then increased by 10 percent and the averagerate of growth of output was that it was different from other countries during1871 and 1911. Textiles, clothing and metal production until 1914 was the mostpopular and dominant products of the industrial sector.
After 1890, thereappeared a sign of prosperity and it increased in the production of almost 200percent. The average rate of output then rose from 1.6 percent in 1870to 1896 and 2.4 percent in 1896 to 1913.
The reason for not having a significant improvement in chemical industries was incontrast with Germany as it had untrained researchers and lack of experiencedchemists.In the nineteenth century, one of the chiefforces which had changed during that period of time was an industrialrevolution, an industrial revolution had led to western civilization in themodern world. New American had ensured its growth and was also dominated by thewestern world. During the industrial and scientific, revolution the humanbeings were able to dominate the nature and even they were rationallymanipulating the environment for their own benefit.
From using the environmentin their best possible way people used to create material prosperity and wereable to produce machines which they could have never imagined, which made theirwork easier and getting their work done in a short period of time. In theseventeenth century, the industrial revolution had proved to Europeans thefundamental assumption of the scientific revolution.Peoples over there they never thought that they would be able to producemachines and at that period of time, they created new levels of materialprosperity (the material’s which helped them to earn money). Peoples who were then lost in the excitementof the Industrial Revolution were the voices that had pointed to thedehumanization of the workforce and the alienation from one’s work, one’sassociates, one’s self, and the natural world.
Industrialization had eventuallyhelped the social world of Europe to transform. The transformation was the goodchange that had happened. It had changed the way people used to work and think.Social Impact of IndustrialRevolution Classand region both had varied due to social consequences. During the late 18thand early 20th-century, people migrated from rural areas to urbanareas due to industrialization.
Many of the rural workers had then moved towork in the factories as they were not able to compete with the cheaper factoryproduction and also the production had shifted from the house to the large-scaleproduction in the factories. The class structure had greatly impacted Industrialization andcapitalism. The old division of society was destroyed due to industrializationin Europe. Workers who worked in new wage economy were sternly impacted due toindustrialization.
Industrial workers were greatly affected as the price rosehigh and the workers also started to get low wages. A huge transformationoccurred in factory production. Now, new rules and regulations were set by thefactory owners. Some of the rules were:· Workers who were late to come to the factory were fined.· They were not allowed to wear watches.
· They were not allowed to wander, chat or sing.· As workerslacked discipline they were introduced by Mechanisms of labor supervision. During 1980’s there was an impact on the family members as well,here we talk about both 18th century and 19th-centuryfamily. 18th-century family did not distinguish between thehousehold and the one who lived in the house including widows, siblings, stepchildren, servants, tutors, etc. All the family members were engaged indomestic production.
Both bride and grooms made a financial contribution to thefamily economy. Women’s were valued as the producers in the family economy. In the19th century, the family economy was then replaced by family wageeconomy. There was a growth of wage labor and there was a shift in productionfrom the household to the factories. The need for money, the need to pay for food and rent was now defined as thefamily wage economy. The working class family changed the position ofwomen and how they worked.
The children and especially the daughterswere considered as an important economic resource for the working classfamilies. They considered that their economic burden had become less whendaughters married and left their home. In the new mechanized textile industry,the children’s and even the daughters found employment. Families’ shifted tothe factory town so that they all could work over their together.
Women’s and children’semployment was greater than men in the mechanized textile industry, both thewomen’s and children’s were paid well. Due to the availability of more jobs, ithelped them to save money. Daughters became independent (spending money, familycontrol, spheres of marriage) when they shifted to the cities, but in thecities, wages were often low and employment was only seasonal. Married women’s played multiple roles, women’smanaged the house, contributed wages to the family funds, and they even caredfor their children. Women’s worked for a full time until and unless they gavebirth to children.
After childbirth they usually took non- mechanized garmenttrades or they used to earn wages as laundresses, charwomen, etc.