InHealth Psychology researchers has always been interested in factors whichhamper and foster individuals’ Health and well-being and their positive viewstowards life. Whereas early studies focused on the relationship of well-beingand demographic variables such as age (Gross & John, 2003; Springer, Pudrovska & Hauser,2012),gender (Roothman, Kirstan & Wissing, 2003), socioeconomic (Kaplan, Shema & Leite, 2008) andmarital status (Reneflot& Mamelund, 2012)more recently researchers started to study personality-based causes andcorrelates of psychological well-being. Thus, for various features ofpersonality, such as traits (DeNeve & Cooper, 1998), commitment to goals(Emmons, 1991), self-regulation (Baumeister & Vohs, 2003; Tangney,Baumeister & Boon, 2004; Hofer, Busch & Kartner, J. (2011) andsubjective vitality (Ryan and Frederick, 1997; Salama-Younes, 2011)a significant association with well-being has been shown. Thepresent paper makes an attempt in this direction and examines not only therelationship of subjective vitality with various aspects of psychologicalwellbeing but also explores the relative importance of this affective variablein predicting psychological well-being.
Well-beingis individual’s multi-dimensional state which includes physical, mental health,knowledge, understanding, work freedom, utility and healthy relationship. Thereare two types of approaches deals with the well-being, Hedonic (measured withassessments of subjective well-being) and Edaimonic well-being (measured with Psychologicalwell-being that consists of six aspect of human potential: Autonomy, PersonalGrowth, Self-Acceptance, Life Purpose, Mastery and Positive Relatedness).However, for the purposes of this inquiry,subjective vitality was taken as appositive construct and defined as a positivemental and physical energy. Subjective vitality is the state of feeling alive, of havingpositive emotions. It is considered to be an aspect of emotional and physicalwell-being and is derived from an internal source.
(Salama-Younes, 2011).Ryan and Frederick (1997) furtherdefined “Subjective vitality as energy that is perceived to emanate from theself, with an internal locus of causality and is influenced by bothpsychological and physical factors.”Greenglass,2006, subjective vitality may be seen “as reflecting a person’s being (as)fully functioning and self-realized” Theconcept of vitality was developed within the framework of self-determinationtheory (Deci & Ryan, 2000; Ryan & Deci, 2000).
Deci and Ryan (2000)characterized it as an entity full of energy, enthusiasm, aliveness,non-fatigue, weariness, and exhaustion, and proved that when the subjectivevitality is in a lower level, irritability and fatigue will be created and itmay not make completely use of potential to do activities. But when thesubjective vitality is in a higher level, sufficient energy will be created todo such activities, and the mood is in a proper status, so all duties andactivities are performed very good, (Ryan & Deci, 2001).Vitality, or the energy available to the self, is asalient and functionally significant indicator of health and eudaimonicwell-being that refers to the feeling of being alive, vital and full of energy.Feeling of vitality is an individual’s own appraisal of those factors thatdetermine the degree of energy and spirit felt. (Ryan & Frederick, 1997). Uysal,Satici, Satici and Akin, (2014) stated thatsubjective happiness, a state of feeling regarded as pleasure or satisfaction,has a relationship with subjective vitality and life satisfaction.Sood and Bakhshi (2015) showed that higher the Psychological Capital(self-efficacy, hope, resilience, and optimism) of an employee increases thefeeling of the subjective vitality. Rouse, Zanten, Ntoumanis, Metsios,Yu, Kitas and Duda (2015) conducted 2 studies to validate the Subjectivevitality scale as a brief, freely available measure of positive psychologicalwell-being in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients.
Results of the studies alsorevealed that the SVS was significantly and positively related to healthrelated quality of life and physical function. Conversely feelings ofsubjective vitality were significantly and negatively related to feelings offatigue, anxiety, and depression. Deniz and Satici (2017) examinedthe relationship between big five personality traits and subjective vitality.Participants were 307 university students. The results showed that openness, conscientiousness,extraversion and agreeableness are positively associated to subjectivevitality, while neuroticism is negatively associated with subjective vitality.
Moreover, results indicated that except consciousness, four dimensions ofpersonality (neuroticism, extraversion, openness to experiences andagreeableness predicted subjective vitality.By focusing on subjective vitality as determinantsof psychological well-being, we investigated its interrelation with variousdimension as well as psychological well-being. In addition, we examined whetherfeeling of subjective vitality meaningfully associate and predict the sense of psychologicalwell-being. Thus, the present study sheds light on what way, subjectivevitality has a beneficial effect on Psychological well-being. Problem: – Does feeling of Subjective vitality enhancePsychological well-being. Objectives:- Followingobjectives were formulated to fulfill the purpose of the study.1. To study therelationship between Subjective vitality and Psychological well-being (Autonomy,Personal Growth, Self-Acceptance, Life Purpose, Environmental Mastery and PositiveRelatedness various dimension).
2. To study the predictiverole of Subjective vitality in Psychological well-being (Autonomy, PersonalGrowth, Self-Acceptance, Life Purpose, Environmental Mastery and Positive Relatedness) Hypothesis:- FollowingHypothesis were formulated in this study.1. There would be positiveassociation between Subjective vitality and Psychological well-being (Autonomy,Personal Growth, Self-Acceptance, Life Purpose, Environmental Mastery and PositiveRelatedness) 2. There would besignificant role of Subjective vitality in Psychological well-being (Autonomy, PersonalGrowth, Self-Acceptance, Life Purpose, Environmental Mastery and PositiveRelatedness). MethodTools: For the purpose of the study following tools wereused:-1. SubjectiveVitality- This scale has been developed by Ryan& Frederick (1997) based on self determination theory (SDT) of Edward L.
Deci and Richard M. Ryan (1985). This scale measures the energy and enthusiasmof individuals for the life enjoyment and for having better performance. Thisscale consists of seven items that has been scored in a seven level Likertrange. Atotal score can range from 7 to 49; a higher score indicates more subjectivevitality.
Internal consistency coefficient was found as 0.84 forscale. Moreover, test-retest reliability coefficient was 0.79 and Cronbachalpha internal consistency coefficient was found as 0.87 for this scale(Sariçam, 2016). 2.
PsychologicalWell-being- The Ryff s’ PsychologicalWell-Being scale (42-item version) is a widely used measure of wellbeing. TheRyff’s PWB Scales are one of the most widely applied measures of PWB inclinical and general samples varying in gender, age, marital status, level ofeducation, health. The scale consists of statements, positive and negative,related to six different dimensions of Psychological Well-Being: 1.Autonomy2.Environmental Mastery 3.Personal Growth 4.Purpose in Life 5.PositiveRelations 6.
Self-Acceptance. The scale has shown good reliability and validityin its use with general populations. Cronbach’s alpha for the whole scale wasapproximately .75 to .
78.Sample:- Therewere 50 males and 50 females, with ages ranging from 20 to 40 years. Allparticipants completed a package of questionnaires including the Subjective Vitality and PsychologicalWell-being scale. Procedure: – After the Completion of the scales wasanonymous and there was a guarantee of confidentiality. The scales wereadministered to the subjects individually or in a group setting.
Prior toadministration of measures, all participants were told about the purposes ofthe study.Results:-The present study highlights the role ofsubjective vitality and psychological well-being among young adults; for thepurpose, descriptive statistics and Pearson product moment correlation has beenapplied. Further simple linear regression was calculated to assess the role ofsubjective vitality in psychological well-being among young adults.Table. 1Descriptive Statistics andIntercorrelation metrices of Subjective vitality and Psychological Well-being Measures Mean S.
D. SV AT EM PG PR PL SA PWS Subjective vitality 31.40 6.
35 1 .388** .317** .309** .
454** .341** .256* .452** **. Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (2-tailed). *.
Correlation is significant at the 0.05 level (2-tailed). Intercorrelation matrices(Table 1) show that there are significant correlations between subjectivevitality, overall psychological well-being; its various dimension. Subjectivevitality is positively correlated with overall psychological well-being (r=.452; p? .01) which is highly significant.
Further obtained correlation values betweensubjective vitality and each dimension of psychological well-being i.e. forautonomy (r= .
388; p? .01), environmental mastery (r= .317** p? .01), personal growth (r= .309**; p? .
01), personal relatedness (r= .454**; p? .01), purpose in life (r= .341**; p? .01) and self-acceptance (r=.256*; p ? .
05).Table.2 Summaryof simple linear regression for subjective vitality on Autonomy dimension of psychologicalwell-being. Variable SV a constant B Beta R2 F for R2 SV 19.
56 .29 .39 .15 17.
39 DV-AT In table 2 the very first dimension of the psychological well-being for which simple linear regression was applied is Autonomy. The obtained regression value (R2) of subjective vitality is .15 which highlights the 15% of total variance to explain the Autonomy.
The samehas been depicted in the form of pie-chart as follows. Figure- 1: Pie chart showing contribution of Subjective vitality towards the total varianceof Autonomy (dimension of PWB). Table.3Summaryof simple linear regression for subjective vitality on Environmentalmastery dimension of psychologicalwell-being. Variable SV a constant B Beta R2 F for R2 Sv 20.
83 .21 .32 .
10 10.93 DV: EM The second dimension of psychological well-being in which subjective vitality contributes is Environmental mastery. The obtained regression value (R2) of subjective vitality is .10 which highlights the 10% of total variance to explain the Environmental mastery.
The contribution of subjective vitality in environmental mastery has been depicted in the form of pie-chart as follows. Figure- 1: Pie chart showing contribution of Subjective vitality towards the totalvariance of Environmental mastery (dimension of PWB). Table.4Summaryof simple linear regression for subjective vitality on Personal Growthdimension of psychological well-being. Variable SV a constant B Beta R2 F for R2 Sv 21.12 .25 .
31 .10 10.37 DV: PG Table 4 showing 10 the regressionequation for Personal Growth (third dimension of psychological well-being) inwhich subjective vitality contributes. The obtained regression value (R2)of subjective vitality is .10 which highlights the 10% of total variance toexplain the personal growth. Figure- 1: Pie chart showing contribution of Subjective vitality towards the totalvariance of Personal Growth (dimension of PWB). Table5.
Summaryof simple linear regression for subjective vitality on Personal relatednessdimension of psychological well-being. Variable SV a constant B Beta R2 F for R2 Sv 18.80 .38 .45 .21 25.
46 DV: PR Table 5 showing theregression equation for Personal relatedness or relation with others (fourthdimension of psychological well-being) in which subjective vitality has beenshown as appositive predictor of personal relatedness. The obtained regressionvalue (R2) of subjective vitality is .21 which highlights the 21% oftotal variance to explain the personal relatedness. Figure- 1: Pie chart showing contribution of Subjective vitality towards the totalvariance of Personal relatedness (dimension of PWB). Table6.Summaryof simple linear regression for subjective vitality on Purpose in lifedimension of psychological well-being. Variable SV a constant B Beta R2 F for R2 Sv 21.62 .
25 .34 .12 12.86 DV: PL Table 6 showsregression equation for purpose in life (fifth dimension of psychologicalwell-being) in which subjective vitality contributes. The obtained regressionvalue (R2) of subjective vitality is .12 which highlights the 12% oftotal variance to explain the personal growth.
Figure- 1: Pie chart showing contribution of Subjective vitality towards the totalvariance of Purpose in life (dimension of PWB). Table7.Summaryof simple linear regression for subjective vitality on Self Acceptancedimension of psychological well-being. Variable SV a constant B Beta R2 F for R2 Sv 24.59 .21 .26 .
07 6.87 DV: SA Table 7 shows the regression equationfor Self-acceptance (sixth dimension of psychological well-being), heresubjective vitality emerged as a positive predictor of Self-acceptance. Theobtained regression value (R2) of subjective vitality is .
7 whichhighlights the 7% of total variance to explain the personal growth. Figure- 1: Pie chart showing contribution of Subjective vitality towards the totalvariance of Self-Acceptance (dimension of PWB). DiscussionFrom the intercorrelational matrices andsimple linear regression equation, it is clear that subjective vitality ispositive correlate and predictor of overall psychological well-being and itssix dimensions which includes autonomy, environmental mastery, personal growth,personal relatedness, purpose in life and self-acceptance.
The obtainedcorrelational values are highly significant but they are weak in nature. Stillthey provide a scope for the researcher to go for higher statistics that issimple linear or multiple linear regression. For the present research keepingin mind the nature of the variable simple linear regression has been preferredover multiple regression analysis.To compute the simplelinear regression analysis subjective vitality has been taken as independentvariable whereas each dimension of psychological well-being considered asdependent variable to develop linear regression equation separately.
Hence intotal six simple linear regression analysis has been computed, results of whichare shown in table 2a, b, c, d, e & f.On the bases of review of literature andthe nature of variable it has been observed that subjective vitality as asignificant correlate of overall and various dimension of psychologicalwell-being would also contribute to explain the variance towards the same.,meaning thereby feeling of subjective vitality enhances the autonomy inpositive direction; which ultimately leads to the overall psychologicalwell-being of the individual.
Feeling of vigor is helpful in independent andself-determining behavior. People, who feel energetic and alive, are also ableto resist social pressures to think and act in certain ways; regulates behaviorfrom within; evaluates self by personal standards. Alive andvital people are not so much concerned about the expectations and evolutions ofother. Subjective vitality is also asignificant positive correlate and predictor of Environmental mastery (seconddimension of psychological well-being). It means subjective vitality positivelyassociated and predicted sense of environmental mastery. Positive feeling ofphysical and mental energy contributes to develop a sense of mastery and competence in managing theenvironment.
Without vitality people has difficulty in managing everydayaffairs.Subjective vitality is a feeling of alertness and makes effective use of surroundingopportunities; able to choose or create contexts suitable to personal needs andvaluesFeeling of alivenessalso positively associates with Personal growth. Regression equation shows that vitality ispositive predictors of personal growth, mean that it contributes in continueddevelopment.
Vital people see self as growing and expanding, try to seek newexperience in life. It increases the improvement in self and behavior overtime. Energetic vital people would able to develop new attitudes or behaviors.In context of fourth dimension of psychological well-being, results shows thatsubjective vitality is significantly positive correlate and predictor of Lifepurpose. Vital people have goals and sense of directedness in their life.Felling of energy and aliveness is a helping factor to determine aims andobjectives in life. Energetic and live people always try to give meanings totheir life and fulfill their aims.
Spirit and energy increase significancemeaningfulness in behavior. Results show that vitality is helps tomake positive relations with others. A vital and active person has warm, satisfying, trustingrelationships with others; is concerned about the welfare of others; capable ofstrong empathy, affection, and intimacy; understands give and take of humanrelationships.
Hence subjective vitality is a positive predictor and correlateof positive relation with others. On the self-acceptance dimension resultsreveal that vitality helps to possess a positive attitude toward the self;acknowledges and accepts multiple aspects of self, including good and badqualities; feels positive about past life. A person with vitality and positive energy does not feeldissatisfied with self not disappointed with what has occurred with past life.The present study shows that there is significantpositive correlation between feelings of subjective vitality and psychologicalwell-being (r= .452; p? .
01), indicating that feelings of vitality increase psychological well-being.Therefore subjective vitality considered as a predictors of psychologicalwell-being and health (Rouse, Veldhuijzen Van Zanten, Metsios, Yu, Ntoumanis,Kitas & Duda 2014) because it has deeper, more active and effective featuredue to its fullness of mental energy, motivation and its readiness whichdistinguish it from other dimensions of psychological health. A subjectivevital person is full of energy, excitement, preparedness and is more hopefuland optimistic toward life. Thus, for achieving these states of moods, he/shemust initially, possess mental health, and other components of wellbeing suchas autonomy (free to express their thought and decisions), environmentalmastery (competency and mastery to manage activities), personal growth (growingand expending life goals), personal relatedness (worm and satisfactoryrelations with others), purpose in life ( has goal and directedness in life),self-acceptance (accepts multipleaspects of self, including good and bad qualities).
Similar to presentstudy previous researches also showed that when in vital states, people aremore active and productive, cope better with stress and challenge, and reportgreater mental health (Penninx, Guralnik, Bandeen-Roche, Kasper, Simonsick,Ferrucci , 2000). People who feel more vitality have less negative and morepositive mood.This result supported by the many researches e.g. byBostic (2002) in which he declared that there is a high level of positive relationbetween psychological adjustment, physical health and subjective vitality. In aresearch, Ryan & Fredric (1997) carried out a series of six studies ondifferent sample.
In these studies, they found that not only subjectivevitality has relation with psychological factors such as autonomy andrelatedness, but also with physical health. Subjective vitality weresignificantly positively related to indexes of wellbeing, self-actualization,self-esteem, better mental health, and higher reported self-determination, andnegatively related to indexes of ill-being (e.g., psychopathology, anxiety anddepression) and physical symptoms. Subjective vitality is positively associatedwith extraversion and conscientiousness, and negatively associated withneuroticism. People who feel more vitality have less negative and more positivemood. Subjective vitality has been inverselyassociated with increased tension, immunological dysfunction, and variousphysical illnesses (Peterson &Seligman, 2004).
Indeedsimilar results were obtained by Ryan and Deci (2008) who explained that subjectivevitality also enhances being productive, active and helps to better cope withstress and to have better mental health. Fini, Kavousian, Beigyand Emami (2010) showed there is fairly good positive relationship between lifeskills, self-efficacy, adjustment, life satisfaction and psychologicalwell-being with subjective vitality. Findings of the previous studies also supportpresent study e.
g.)vitalityis positively associated with emotional,psychological and social well-being, quality of life (Salama & Younes, 2011. Vitalityconsists of a mental as well as a physical component. As to the mentalcomponent, vitality reflects well-being, less feelings of fatigue, mentalresilience, and perseverance. With respect to the physical component, vitalityis characterized by high energy levels and feeling “strong and fit” (Strijk,Proper, van der Beek & Willem van Mechelen, 2012).Conclusion:- To summarize this, itcan be concluded that subjective vitality is a positive predictor ofpsychological well-being (eudaimonic well-being). in total feeling of positivemental and physical energy couldmanifest of psychological well-being and its all dimension.
Therefore,strengthening the feeling of vitality can play an important role in promotingthe psychological well-beings of the people and in turn could even result inexperiencing proper health and well-being and have a fruitful life in futurewhich is full of autonomy, positive relations, aims, self love, hope, desireand aspiration.