In
Health Psychology researchers has always been interested in factors which
hamper and foster individuals’ Health and well-being and their positive views
towards life. Whereas early studies focused on the relationship of well-being
and demographic variables such as age (Gross & John, 2003; Springer, Pudrovska & Hauser,
2012),
gender (Roothman, Kirstan & Wissing, 2003), socioeconomic (Kaplan, Shema & Leite, 2008) and
marital status (Reneflot
& Mamelund, 2012)
more recently researchers started to study personality-based causes and
correlates of psychological well-being. Thus, for various features of
personality, such as traits (DeNeve & Cooper, 1998), commitment to goals
(Emmons, 1991), self-regulation (Baumeister & Vohs, 2003; Tangney,
Baumeister & Boon, 2004; Hofer, Busch & Kartner, J. (2011) and
subjective vitality (Ryan and Frederick, 1997; Sala­ma-Younes, 2011)
a significant association with well-being has been shown. The
present paper makes an attempt in this direction and examines not only the
relationship of subjective vitality with various aspects of psychological
wellbeing but also explores the relative importance of this affective variable
in predicting psychological well-being.

Well-being
is individual’s multi-dimensional state which includes physical, mental health,
knowledge, understanding, work freedom, utility and healthy relationship. There
are two types of approaches deals with the well-being, Hedonic (measured with
assessments of subjective well-being) and Edaimonic well-being (measured with Psychological
well-being that consists of six aspect of human potential: Autonomy, Personal
Growth, Self-Acceptance, Life Purpose, Mastery and Positive Relatedness).

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However, for the purposes of this inquiry,
subjective vitality was taken as appositive construct and defined as a positive
mental and physical energy. Subjective vitality is the state of feeling alive, of having
positive emo­tions. It is considered to be an aspect of emotional and physical
well-being and is derived from an internal source. (Sala­ma-Younes, 2011).

Ryan and Frederick (1997) further
defined “Subjective vitality as energy that is perceived to emanate from the
self, with an internal locus of causality and is influenced by both
psychological and physical factors.”

Green­glass,
2006, subjective vitality may be seen “as reflecting a person’s be­ing (as)
fully functioning and self-realized”

 

The
concept of vitality was developed within the framework of self-determination
theory (Deci & Ryan, 2000; Ryan & Deci, 2000). Deci and Ryan (2000)
characterized it as an entity full of energy, enthusiasm, aliveness,
non-fatigue, weariness, and exhaustion, and proved that when the subjective
vitality is in a lower level, irritability and fatigue will be created and it
may not make completely use of potential to do activities. But when the
subjective vitality is in a higher level, sufficient energy will be created to
do such activities, and the mood is in a proper status, so all duties and
activities are performed very good, (Ryan & Deci, 2001).

Vitality, or the energy available to the self, is a
salient and functionally significant indicator of health and eudaimonic
well-being that refers to the feeling of being alive, vital and full of energy.
Feeling of vitality is an individual’s own appraisal of those factors that
determine the degree of energy and spirit felt. (Ryan & Frederick, 1997). Uysal,
Satici, Satici and Akin, (2014) stated that
subjective happiness, a state of feeling regarded as pleasure or satisfaction,
has a relationship with subjective vitality and life satisfac­tion.
Sood and Bakhshi (2015) showed that higher the Psychological Capital
(self-efficacy, hope, resilience, and optimism) of an employee increases the
feeling of the subjective vitality.

Rouse, Zanten, Ntoumanis, Metsios,
Yu, Kitas and Duda (2015) conducted 2 studies to validate the Subjective
vitality scale as a brief, freely available measure of positive psychological
well-being in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients. Results of the studies also
revealed that the SVS was significantly and positively related to health
related quality of life and physical function. Conversely feelings of
subjective vitality were significantly and negatively related to feelings of
fatigue, anxiety, and depression. Deniz and Satici (2017) examined
the relationship between big five personality traits and subjective vitality.
Participants were 307 university students. The results showed that openness, conscientiousness,
extraversion and agreeableness are positively associated to subjective
vitality, while neuroticism is negatively associated with subjective vitality.
Moreover, results indicated that except consciousness, four dimensions of
personality (neuroticism, extraversion, openness to experiences and
agreeableness predicted subjective vitality.

By focusing on subjective vitality as determinants
of psychological well-being, we investigated its interrelation with various
dimension as well as psychological well-being. In addition, we examined whether
feeling of subjective vitality meaningfully associate and predict the sense of psychological
well-being. Thus, the present study sheds light on what way, subjective
vitality has a beneficial effect on Psychological well-being.

 

Problem: – Does feeling of Subjective vitality enhance
Psychological well-being.

 

Objectives:
– Following
objectives were formulated to fulfill the purpose of the study.

1.                 
To study the
relationship between Subjective vitality and Psychological well-being (Autonomy,
Personal Growth, Self-Acceptance, Life Purpose, Environmental Mastery and Positive
Relatedness various dimension).

 

2.                 
To study the predictive
role of Subjective vitality in Psychological well-being (Autonomy, Personal
Growth, Self-Acceptance, Life Purpose, Environmental Mastery and Positive Relatedness)

 

Hypothesis:
– Following
Hypothesis were formulated in this study.

1.                 
There would be positive
association between Subjective vitality and Psychological well-being (Autonomy,
Personal Growth, Self-Acceptance, Life Purpose, Environmental Mastery and Positive
Relatedness)

 

2.                 
There would be
significant role of Subjective vitality in Psychological well-being (Autonomy, Personal
Growth, Self-Acceptance, Life Purpose, Environmental Mastery and Positive
Relatedness).

 

Method

Tools: For the purpose of the study following tools were
used:-

1.                 
Subjective
Vitality- This scale has been developed by Ryan
& Frederick (1997) based on self determination theory (SDT) of Edward L.
Deci and Richard M. Ryan (1985). This scale measures the energy and enthusiasm
of individuals for the life enjoyment and for having better performance. This
scale consists of seven items that has been scored in a seven level Likert
range. A
total score can range from 7 to 49; a higher score indicates more subjective
vitality. Internal consistency coefficient was found as 0.84 for
scale. Moreover, test-retest reliability coefficient was 0.79 and Cronbach
alpha internal consistency coefficient was found as 0.87 for this scale
(Sariçam, 2016).

 

2.                 
Psychological
Well-being- The Ryff s’ Psychological
Well-Being scale (42-item version) is a widely used measure of wellbeing. The
Ryff’s PWB Scales are one of the most widely applied measures of PWB in
clinical and general samples varying in gender, age, marital status, level of
education, health. The scale consists of statements, positive and negative,
related to six different dimensions of Psychological Well-Being: 1.Autonomy
2.Environmental Mastery 3.Personal Growth 4.Purpose in Life 5.Positive
Relations 6.Self-Acceptance. The scale has shown good reliability and validity
in its use with general populations. Cronbach’s alpha for the whole scale was
approximately .75 to .78.

Sample:

There
were 50 males and 50 females, with ages ranging from 20 to 40 years. All
participants completed a package of questionnaires including the Subjective Vitality and Psychological
Well-being scale.

 Procedure: –

After the Completion of the scales was
anonymous and there was a guarantee of confidentiality. The scales were
administered to the subjects individually or in a group setting. Prior to
administration of measures, all participants were told about the purposes of
the study.

Results:-

The present study highlights the role of
subjective vitality and psychological well-being among young adults; for the
purpose, descriptive statistics and Pearson product moment correlation has been
applied. Further simple linear regression was calculated to assess the role of
subjective vitality in psychological well-being among young adults.

Table. 1

Descriptive Statistics and
Intercorrelation metrices of Subjective vitality and Psychological Well-being

 Measures

Mean

S.D.

SV

AT

EM

PG

PR

PL

SA

PWS

Subjective vitality

31.40

6.35

1

.388**

.317**

.309**

.454**

.341**

.256*

.452**

**. Correlation is
significant at the 0.01 level (2-tailed).

*. Correlation is
significant at the 0.05 level (2-tailed).

 

Intercorrelation matrices
(Table 1) show that there are significant correlations between subjective
vitality, overall psychological well-being; its various dimension. Subjective
vitality is positively correlated with overall psychological well-being (r=
.452; p
? .01) which is highly significant. Further obtained correlation values between
subjective vitality and each dimension of psychological well-being i.e. for
autonomy (r= .388; p
? .01), environmental mastery (r= .317** p
? .01), personal growth (r= .309**; p
? .01), personal relatedness (r= .454**; p
? .01), purpose in life (r= .341**; p
? .01) and self-acceptance (r=.256*; p ? .05).

Table.
2

Summary
of simple linear regression for subjective vitality on Autonomy dimension of psychological
well-being.  

Variable

 

SV

 

 

 

a constant

B

Beta

R2

F for R2

SV

19.56

.29

.39

.15

17.39

DV-AT
In
table 2 the very first dimension of the psychological well-being for which
simple linear regression was applied is Autonomy. The obtained regression
value (R2) of subjective vitality is .15 which highlights the 15%
of total variance to explain the Autonomy. The samehas been depicted in the
form of pie-chart as follows.
 

Figure
– 1: Pie chart showing contribution of Subjective vitality towards the total variance
of Autonomy (dimension of PWB).

 

Table.
3

Summary
of simple linear regression for subjective vitality on Environmental
mastery  dimension of psychological
well-being.  

Variable

 

SV

 

 

 

a constant

B

Beta

R2

F for R2

Sv

20.83

.21

.32

.10

10.93

DV: EM
The second dimension of psychological well-being in
which subjective vitality contributes is Environmental mastery. The obtained
regression value (R2) of subjective vitality is .10 which
highlights the 10% of total variance to explain the Environmental mastery.
The contribution of subjective vitality in environmental mastery has been
depicted in the form of pie-chart as follows.
 

Figure
– 1: Pie chart showing contribution of Subjective vitality towards the total
variance of Environmental mastery (dimension of PWB).

 

Table.
4

Summary
of simple linear regression for subjective vitality on Personal Growth
dimension of psychological well-being.  

Variable

 

SV

 

 

 

a constant

B

Beta

R2

F for R2

Sv

21.12

.25

.31

.10

10.37

DV: PG

            Table 4 showing 10 the regression
equation for Personal Growth (third dimension of psychological well-being) in
which subjective vitality contributes. The obtained regression value (R2)
of subjective vitality is .10 which highlights the 10% of total variance to
explain the personal growth.

 

Figure
– 1: Pie chart showing contribution of Subjective vitality towards the total
variance of Personal Growth (dimension of PWB).

 

Table
5.

Summary
of simple linear regression for subjective vitality on Personal relatedness
dimension of psychological well-being.

Variable

 

SV

 

 

 

a constant

B

Beta

R2

F for R2

Sv

18.80

.38

.45

.21

25.46

DV: PR

Table 5 showing the
regression equation for Personal relatedness or relation with others (fourth
dimension of psychological well-being) in which subjective vitality has been
shown as appositive predictor of personal relatedness. The obtained regression
value (R2) of subjective vitality is .21 which highlights the 21% of
total variance to explain the personal relatedness.

 

Figure
– 1: Pie chart showing contribution of Subjective vitality towards the total
variance of Personal relatedness (dimension of PWB).

 

Table
6.

Summary
of simple linear regression for subjective vitality on Purpose in life
dimension of psychological well-being.  

Variable

 

SV

 

 

 

a constant

B

Beta

R2

F for R2

Sv

21.62

.25

.34

.12

12.86

DV: PL

Table 6 shows
regression equation for purpose in life (fifth dimension of psychological
well-being) in which subjective vitality contributes. The obtained regression
value (R2) of subjective vitality is .12 which highlights the 12% of
total variance to explain the personal growth.

Figure
– 1: Pie chart showing contribution of Subjective vitality towards the total
variance of Purpose in life (dimension of PWB).

 

 

Table
7.

Summary
of simple linear regression for subjective vitality on Self Acceptance
dimension of psychological well-being.  

Variable

 

SV

 

 

 

a constant

B

Beta

R2

F for R2

Sv

24.59

.21

.26

.07

6.87

DV: SA

Table 7 shows the regression equation
for Self-acceptance (sixth dimension of psychological well-being), here
subjective vitality emerged as a positive predictor of Self-acceptance. The
obtained regression value (R2) of subjective vitality is .7 which
highlights the 7% of total variance to explain the personal growth.

 

Figure
– 1: Pie chart showing contribution of Subjective vitality towards the total
variance of Self-Acceptance (dimension of PWB).

 

Discussion

From the intercorrelational matrices and
simple linear regression equation, it is clear that subjective vitality is
positive correlate and predictor of overall psychological well-being and its
six dimensions which includes autonomy, environmental mastery, personal growth,
personal relatedness, purpose in life and self-acceptance. The obtained
correlational values are highly significant but they are weak in nature. Still
they provide a scope for the researcher to go for higher statistics that is
simple linear or multiple linear regression. For the present research keeping
in mind the nature of the variable simple linear regression has been preferred
over multiple regression analysis.

To compute the simple
linear regression analysis subjective vitality has been taken as independent
variable whereas each dimension of psychological well-being considered as
dependent variable to develop linear regression equation separately. Hence in
total six simple linear regression analysis has been computed, results of which
are shown in table 2a, b, c, d, e & f.

On the bases of review of literature and
the nature of variable it has been observed that subjective vitality as a
significant correlate of overall and various dimension of psychological
well-being would also contribute to explain the variance towards the same.,
meaning thereby feeling of subjective vitality enhances the autonomy in
positive direction; which ultimately leads to the overall psychological
well-being of the individual. Feeling of vigor is helpful in independent and
self-determining behavior. People, who feel energetic and alive, are also able
to resist social pressures to think and act in certain ways; regulates behavior
from within; evaluates self by personal standards. Alive and
vital people are not so much concerned about the expectations and evolutions of
other. Subjective vitality is also a
significant positive correlate and predictor of Environmental mastery (second
dimension of psychological well-being). It means subjective vitality positively
associated and predicted sense of environmental mastery. Positive feeling of
physical and mental energy contributes to develop a sense of mastery and competence in managing the
environment. Without vitality people has difficulty in managing everyday
affairs.
Subjective vitality is a feeling of alertness and makes effective use of surrounding
opportunities; able to choose or create contexts suitable to personal needs and
values

Feeling of aliveness
also positively associates with Personal growth.  Regression equation shows that vitality is
positive predictors of personal growth, mean that it contributes in continued
development. Vital people see self as growing and expanding, try to seek new
experience in life. It increases the improvement in self and behavior over
time. Energetic vital people would able to develop new attitudes or behaviors.
In context of fourth dimension of psychological well-being, results shows that
subjective vitality is significantly positive correlate and predictor of Life
purpose. Vital people have goals and sense of directedness in their life.
Felling of energy and aliveness is a helping factor to determine aims and
objectives in life. Energetic and live people always try to give meanings to
their life and fulfill their aims. Spirit and energy increase significance
meaningfulness in behavior. Results show that vitality is helps to
make positive relations with others. A vital and active person has warm, satisfying, trusting
relationships with others; is concerned about the welfare of others; capable of
strong empathy, affection, and intimacy; understands give and take of human
relationships. Hence subjective vitality is a positive predictor and correlate
of positive relation with others. On the self-acceptance dimension results
reveal that vitality helps to possess a positive attitude toward the self;
acknowledges and accepts multiple aspects of self, including good and bad
qualities; feels positive about past life. A person with vitality and positive energy does not feel
dissatisfied with self not disappointed with what has occurred with past life.

The present study shows that there is significant
positive correlation between feelings of subjective vitality and psychological
well-being (r= .452; p
? .01), indicating that feelings of vitality increase psychological well-being.
Therefore subjective vitality considered as a predictors of psychological
well-being and health (Rouse, Veldhuijzen Van Zanten, Metsios, Yu, Ntoumanis,
Kitas & Duda 2014) because it has deeper, more active and effective feature
due to its fullness of mental energy, motivation and its readiness which
distinguish it from other dimensions of psychological health. A subjective
vital person is full of energy, excitement, preparedness and is more hopeful
and optimistic toward life. Thus, for achieving these states of moods, he/she
must initially, possess mental health, and other components of wellbeing such
as autonomy (free to express their thought and decisions), environmental
mastery (competency and mastery to manage activities), personal growth (growing
and expending life goals), personal relatedness (worm and satisfactory
relations with others), purpose in life ( has goal and directedness in life),
self-acceptance (accepts multiple
aspects of self, including good and bad qualities). Similar to present
study previous researches also showed that when in vital states, people are
more active and productive, cope better with stress and challenge, and report
greater mental health (Penninx, Guralnik, Bandeen-Roche, Kasper, Simonsick,
Ferrucci , 2000). People who feel more vitality have less negative and more
positive mood.

This result supported by the many researches e.g. by
Bostic (2002) in which he declared that there is a high level of positive relation
between psychological adjustment, physical health and subjective vitality. In a
research, Ryan & Fredric (1997) carried out a series of six studies on
different sample. In these studies, they found that not only subjective
vitality has relation with psychological factors such as autonomy and
relatedness, but also with physical health. Subjective vitality were
significantly positively related to indexes of wellbeing, self-actualization,
self-esteem, better mental health, and higher reported self-determination, and
negatively related to indexes of ill-being (e.g., psychopathology, anxiety and
depression) and physical symptoms. Subjective vitality is positively associated
with extraversion and conscientiousness, and negatively associated with
neuroticism. People who feel more vitality have less negative and more positive
mood. Subjective vitality has been inversely
associated with increased tension, immunological dysfunction, and various
physical illnesses (Peterson  &
Seligman, 2004).

Indeed
similar results were obtained by Ryan and Deci (2008) who explained that subjective
vitality also enhances being productive, active and helps to better cope with
stress and to have better mental health. Fini, Kavousian, Beigy
and Emami (2010) showed there is fairly good positive relationship between life
skills, self-efficacy, adjustment, life satisfaction and psychological
well-being with subjective vitality. Findings of the previous studies also support
present study e.g.)
vitality
is positively associated with emotional,
psychological and social well-being, quality of life (Salama & Younes, 2011. Vitality
consists of a mental as well as a physical component. As to the mental
component, vitality reflects well-being, less feelings of fatigue, mental
resilience, and perseverance. With respect to the physical component, vitality
is characterized by high energy levels and feeling “strong and fit” (Strijk,
Proper, van der Beek & Willem van Mechelen, 2012).

Conclusion:
– To summarize this, it
can be concluded that subjective vitality is a positive predictor of
psychological well-being (eudaimonic well-being). in total feeling of positive
mental and physical energy  could
manifest of psychological well-being and its all dimension. Therefore,
strengthening the feeling of vitality can play an important role in promoting
the psychological well-beings of the people and in turn could even result in
experiencing proper health and well-being and have a fruitful life in future
which is full of autonomy, positive relations, aims, self love, hope, desire
and aspiration.

x

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