InIndia, retailing is the largest private industry and second largest employerafter agriculture. This sector contributes around 10 per cent of the GDP andalmost 7 per cent of employment. India has the highest retail outlet density inthe world with over 15 million retail outlets.
Retail industry witnessedsignificant development in the past decade evolving from small unorganizedfamily-owned retail formats to organized retailing. Liberalization of theeconomy, rise in per capita income and growing consumerism have encouragedlarger business houses and manufactures to set up retail formats. Real estate conglomerates,venture capitalists investing in retail infrastructure has only added tobooming retail in India. Many foreign retailers have also entered the marketthrough different routes such as wholesale cash-and-carry, local manufacturing,franchising, test marketing and many more.
The growth in organized retailingand unorganized retailers is fast changing their business models andimplementing new technologies and modern accounting practices to facecompetition every day. TheIndian retail sector is characterized by the presence of a large number ofsmall unorganized retailers. However, in the past decade there has beendevelopment of organized retailing, which has encouraged large private sectorplayer to invest in this sector. Many foreign players have also entered Indiathrough different routes such as test marketing, franchising, wholesalecash-and-carry operation. With high GDP growth, increased consumerism andliberalization of the manufacturing sector, India is being portrayed as anattractive destination for foreign direct investment (FDI) in retailing.
Despitethe impact of the 2008/2009 global financial crisis, the retail market in Indiastill remains strong, and consumer spending power continues to grow. Theshopping-mall format has been widely accepted by Chinese shoppers, althoughthis format is quite different from their traditional mode of shopping. Extantliterature has previously examined consumer behavior within the shopping mallcontext in Western societies. Alot of research related to the Indian retail market has made significantprogress over the last decade. However much remains to be explored and furtherresearch is needed to gain a greater understanding of this rapidly changingmarket.
For example, how the personality of the mall and fashion orientationmight impact Indian shoppers’ intent and behavior remains unaddressed. Hence,this study to determine the relationship between the type of store/mallpersonality and customer behavior is intended to generate meaningfulinformation and contribute important knowledge to the existing literature ofmall shopping in India at both theoretical and practical levels. In today’s world, shopping is no longer anexercise to obtain the preferred product(s) or service(s). Consumers frequentlyexpect multi-sensory, interactive, and holistic shopping experience thatentertains, stimulate, and emotionally affects them. Prior studies have shownthat measurement of customer satisfaction provides better means to understandthe needs of customers and to empower them by creating customer-centredservices. In India, department stores attract affluent consumers who seekemotional gratification as consumption motive. Therefore, the actual happinessthey receive in-service consumptions directly influence their satisfaction. Theresearch (Mala Srivastava, Dimple Kaul (2014)) shows that customer experienceperforms the role of mediator between the social interactions, convenience andsatisfaction.
It demonstrates that customer experience is the key to customersatisfaction. Henceforth, customer experience in retail context is extremelyrelevant. In hypermarket retail stores where the retailers connect themselves tothe customers with the help of hedonic shopping motivations such asentertainment, exploration, gratification, social, status, idea, and valueshopping which helps in generating customer satisfaction, loyalty andassistance intentions in the customer. The study (Atulkar, S., & Kesari, B.
(2017)) shows that entertainment facilities are considered as a most importantcompetitive tool for creating satisfaction in the customers. In UAE, a similarstudy (El-Adly, M. I.
, & Eid, R. (2016)) shows that value of mall has asignificant positive effect on both customer satisfaction and customer loyalty.The above circumstances present retailers with opportunities to differentiatethemselves from competitors by designing retail environments that will creatememorable customer experiences. Theaforementioned research has also indicated that customer purchasing decisionsare influenced by the following: 1.
Perception: The customer’sselection, organization and interpretation of information to form knowledgereflects his/her perception.2. Motivation: The customer’sdesire to meet his/her own needs reflects motivation.
The learning out ofmotivation is reflected on the customer’s behavior while meeting these desires.3. Attitude: It is reflectedon customer’s steadily favorable or unfavorable assessments, feelings, orinclinations towards an object or idea. 4. Beliefs: They are reflectedon customers’ thoughts about a product or service (Kotler & Armstrong,1997) The Factors of Consumer Purchasing Decision: Thereare many factors influencing customers on how consumers make any purchasingdecision.
The purchasing decision process starts before the actual purchase andcontinues long after. Convenience:Conveniencewas offered by retail which was the main motivating factor for purchases.Convenient access to product information could facilitate and help shoppers’making a purchases decision (Loshe & Spiller, 1999). Price:Priceis another critical factor for a customer on retail shopping (Heim and Sinha,2001). However, Li et al. (1999) argued that often retail shoppers were notprice-sensitive, cause of these consumers’ price comparisons among differentretailers on each product was time consuming and the price difference was verysmall.
Brand:Brandis defined as the quality related to the products or services. Brand is oftenreferred as the seller’s reputation and consumer loyalty. Brands and featuresincreases as more information is obtained, knowledge of the available andconsumer awareness (Kotler & Armstrong, 1997). Security:Securitywas a critical successful factor for retail. Retail would fail if customer feelslacking a great degree of confidence (Kesh et al., 2002).
The primary reasonindicated of the most buyers who didn’t shop online cause of afraid to revealpersonal credit card information to retailers or over the internet (Rao, 2000). Mall personality and shopping value: Priorresearch revealed that shopping activities can generate both hedonic andutilitarian outcomes for consumers (Fischer and Arnold, 1990; Sherry 1990).Utilitarian values often refer to the functional, instrumental, practical, andtask-related benefits, whereas hedonic values refer to ones that are aesthetic,experiential, emotional, and pleasure-related (Batra and Ahtola 1990) Customers:Inorder to understand the various dynamics involved for customer relationshipswith malls , customers themselves should be segregated into two buckets 1. Tourists 2.Locals As per the existing research of perceivedperception of tourists for malls in a tourist destination (1), the followingfactors were considered critical:· Quality ofretailers· Convenience· Mall environment · Rewards· Customer service· Overall customer satisfactionThe correct prioritization of these factors should be ascertainedin order to understand the customer relationship to malls at a touristdestination at any point of time to understand changing customer preferencesand shifting of loyalties. Movingon to the category of local consumers, with the advent of globalization as wellas modern technology , shopping malls today have become a shopping experience(2) and it was found that shopping mall experience has a correlation with thesatisfaction and loyalty towards the brand of the mall.
However, it was foundthat even though there was no significant relationship between shopping complexbrand Personality and shopping complex loyalty, there was a relationshipbetween shopping complex satisfaction and shopping complex loyalty which led toan increase of the shopping complex loyalty. Facility Management:FacilityManagement is imperative in all realms of the service industry. The quality ofFM service plays an important role in the overall service performance of shoppingmall (3). The empirically relationshipsbetween overall perceived customer satisfaction and satisfaction came down to nineFM service dimensions: · MMCF: managementand maintenance of communal facilities· CSC: cleaning staff and cleanliness· WR: wash room· PRO: promotion· PMS: property management services· SG: security guard· SS: security services· MCA: management of common areas· OPMS – Overall property managementsatisfaction Mall attributes and customer satisfaction Customersatisfaction, defined as “the number of customers, or percentage of totalcustomers, whose reported experience with a firm, its products, or its services(ratings) exceeds specified satisfaction goals.” gives a reference toretailers to tailor a strategy for customers (Ferris et al.
, 2010; Tse andWilton, 1988; Oliver 1999). According to Kim, et al., (2004) customersatisfaction is customer’s reaction to the state of satisfaction, andcustomer’s judgment of satisfaction level. Wong et al., (2012) there is arelationship between shopping mall attributes and customer satisfaction.Inorder to investigate the personality of the retail store, two differentMartineau (1958) categories of retail store attributes i.
e. functional andpsychological which directly and indirectly to customer satisfaction. 1. The functionalcategory includes attributes like location, assortment of products and storelayout. 2. The psychologicalcategory represents the feelings generated by the functional elements of thestore.Theabove research into mall choice by the customers gained more attention overformer attributes than latter. For supporting the review in the study of agrocery store attributes, customer looked upon the price, product variety,one-stop shopping, quality, location of the store, advertisement, generalappearance of the store and convenience (Doyle 1975).
Manana,(2009), suggested that Consumers evaluate the malls on the basis of productsand different features of mall e.g. location, employees and atmosphere. Retailbusinesses are spending on getting and sustaining locations appropriate fortheir products and consumers, as mall location is vital factor of retail business(Hernandez and Bennison, 2000) Thefactors which are affecting customer in shopping and selecting the shoppingplace, fall into five groups i.e. Features of price, accessibility,environment, mall image, regarding the consumer buying behavior, convenienceand rewards (Wong et al., 2012; Dawar and Parker, 1994;) determined otherdimensions of mall selection behavior e.
g. decoration, atmosphere, exterior andcleanliness of mall (Newberry et al., 2003). Aresearch done by Wang & Ha, (2011), nine features of mall make significantthe consumer to loyal towards shopping in mall that are mall atmosphere, aftersale service, brochures and pamphlets, communication, convenience, quality andassortment of products promotions, expected behavior and rewards as discountsetc.
Isaksson & Suljanovic (2006) during the study of “different factors inretail environment affect customer experience” in IKEA experience suggestedthat the most apparent reasons for people choosing to shop is cost advantagewith their wide variety of products being relating cheap in comparison toothers retailer and product assortment is wide and constantly changing. Locationis another factor in IKEA which add something extra to their shopping. Furthermoreanother study done by Kumar and Vikraman (2012) comparing organized andunorganized retail outlets suggested that organized outlets provide price, selfservice, visual merchandising and essay accessible layout to find out theproduct. In selection of location, Reardon et al.