In analytical methods for analysis of PAH
in foods several parameters like as extraction, clean up, detection, column
size and quantification for determination PAH should be considered.

For the determination of PAHs in dairy products few works have been
reported by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled to
fluorescence (FLD) (Kishikawa et al. 2003; Santonicola et al. 2017 ;
Londoño et al. 2013), HPLC–UV (38?40, 62, 66, 67, 78, 80, 86) and gas chromatography with mass spectrometry (GC–MS) ( Sanagi et
al, 2013; Aguinaga et al. 2007; Lee et al. 2015)or GC–MS/MS
(28, 31, 38, 79) (depending on the nature of the sample and its volatility) (Li
et al. 2003).

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The procedure of sample preparation such as liquid-liquid
extraction, solid-phase and soxhlet saponification with KOH–methanol solution
17, is actual difficult and time-consuming and need to use high solvents. In
solid samples, PAH can be extracted by Soxhlet method (34, 36, 50, 81) and many
organic solvents can be used. This extraction method although is efficient for
many samples, it needs large volumes of solvents (300 mL), and is
time-consuming (6?24 h).Therefore cannot extract PAH compounds exactly. An
alkaline saponification with KOH–methanol solution or NaOH ethanol used for
liberating of PAHs bound to Compounds or to eliminate some lipid components but
Some PAHs may be under strongly alkaline conditions degraded and some BaP by
partial portioning to the alcoholic phase may be lost. For these reasons, developed
solvent extraction methods have been established, including ultrasound-assisted
extraction (USE) (26, 40, 39, 42–44, 66, 71–73, 77, 83, 87), microwave-assisted
extraction (MAE) 51, pressurized-liquid extraction (PLE) 28, 38, 50, 60, 63, 64, headspace-
solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) (Guillén
and Sopelana, 2005) and
direct-immersion- solid-phase
microextraction (DI-SPME) (Doong et al. 2005) (Table 2). On the other
hand, usually during analysis of target samples, many other ingredients and
components are co-extracted. In plants, natural pigments and essential oils and in animal
tissue, lipids are
the most components which analyzing together with the target sample. Therefore
the validation of method is very important to achieve best results of PAH in the samples.

procedures used for extraction of PAHs from food critically depend on the nature
of the sample conditions. W?grzyn et
al. modified analytical method of PAH in milk powder and cottage cheese
samples. For sample preparation they choose size exclusion chromatography (SEC) for sample
preparation and RP-HPLC with florescence detection. The results showed that SEC
is suitable method for isolation PAH in different foods especially dairy products.
Because of the three clean-up procedures investigated in this study, only SEC
enables to one-step clean-up. On the other hand, it is fast, sensitive and
selective method for determination PAH.

Naccari et al.(2011) studied on PAHs concentration in heat-treated milk samples. Quantitative determination of PAHs was performed by HPLC using a
fluorescence detector and offered a
good selectivity and separation of the 16 PAHs analyzed. All PAHs were detected
by fluorescence, using specific emission and excitation wavelengths for each
compound, leading to good detection limits. Except for Acenaphtlylene ACEN and Indeno(1,2,3-cd)pyrene
I(c,d)P since these were not fluorescent. Likewise they found that
among ionization techniques for the analysis of PAHs in nonvolatile
matrices, APCI (atmospheric pressure chemical ionization) coupled with high
performance liquid chromatography is undoubtedly the more suitable for the
analysis of these molecules (Anacleto,
Ramaley, Benoit, Boyd, & Quilliam, 1995).

Aguinaga, et al (2007) investigated 16 PAH in milk and related products using solid-phase
microextraction by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry. They found
that involvement SPME-GC–MS is a suitable technique
for the purpose of the 16 PAHs in milk samples and related products. By
selecting SPME method for PAH analysis in milk and dairy products, time
consuming for sample preparation was reduced and no need to use of organic
solvent and clean-up steps.




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