In February 1946, George Kennan,a State Department official stated that Soviet leaders believed that the onlyway to protect the Soviet Union was to destroy “rival” nations and theirinfluence over weaker nations. He advised that the best way to thwart Sovietplans for was to contain Soviet influence through economic policy to thoseplaces where it already existed and prevent its political expansion into newareas. This strategy, known as the policy of containment, formed the basis forU.S. foreign policy and military decision making for more than 30 years.
This ideology embraced the”symbiotic relationship between the culture of the Cold War and the domesticrevival, leading to the re-emergence of a traditional family system. Domesticcontainment, the elementary family and gender hierarchies played a role on theturf in which moral victories against communism were fought. Thedevelopment of suburbs became connected with a life of conformity wheresocietal norms dictated marrying young and having children. Middle-class womenwere expected to stay at home and nurture their children instead of findingwork outside the home. 12) Discuss America’s concentration camps. Who was put thereand why?The Japanese assault on Pearl Harborled to a torrent of racist assumptions about Japanese Americans and Japaneseimmigrants residing in the United States that resulted in the relocation andinternment of about 120,000 individuals of Japanese descent, most of whom hadbeen born in the United States. On February 19, 1942, President FranklinRoosevelt signed Executive Order 9066, providing the army authority to removeindividuals from “military areas” to thwart sabotage or espionage.
The armycapitalized on this authority to relocate people of Japanese ancestry livingalong the Pacific coast of Oregon, California, and Washington, as well as someparts of Arizona to concentration camps in the American interior. Fears ofsabotage and racist sentiments led Roosevelt to act even though a studyappointment by him earlier demonstrated that there was little danger ofdisloyalty on the part of Japanese in the west coast. Ironically,Japanese living in Hawaii were not sent to these concentration camps.Those who were sent to theconcentration camps described that the experience was extremely traumatic withfamilies sometimes removed and people only allowed to bring a limited amount oftheir sentimental belongings, abandoning the rest of their stuff. Despite theadversities faced, the Japanese attempted to build communities within the campsand live a normal life where adults actively participated in camp governmentand worked at a diverse amount of jobs.
Children partook in “regular”activities such as attending school, playing sports against local teams, andorganizing Boy Scout units. These concentration camps also consisted of some16,000 Germans, including some from Latin America. However, unlike the casewith Japanese Americans, they depicted only a minute percentage of the membersof these ethnic groups residing in the country. The majority of theseindividuals were innocent of any transgressions, however some Germans were apart of the Nazi party. No Japanese Americans in the concentrations camps werefound guilty of sabotage or espionage.2) What was the 1906 Atlanta Race Riot? Why did it occur andwhat was the lasting impact on what came to be known as the civil rightsmovement.The 1906 Atlanta Race Riot was amajor eruption of violence that occurred September, 22-24, 1906, where whitemobs murdered dozens of African Americans, injured numbers of others, andcaused considerable property damage.
During this time, there was an emergenceof a black elite in Atlanta, adding to racial tension with many whites blamingAfrican American saloon-goers for increasing crime rates in the developingcity. Local newspaper reports of suspected attacks by African American men onwhite women were the catalyst for the attacks. Some whites hated the prosperityof industrious African American residents employed and managing their companiesin and near the business district, while competitions for work were also afactor for the attacks. Many people’s lives were foreverchanged by this event, including Walter White and W.E.B. Du Bois.
The riotinfluenced Du Bois to help found the NAACP (National Association for theAdvancement of Colored People) in 1909 to get the best protection for AfricanAmericans in the South as well as the North, promoting social justice andprotection of legal rights. White became secretary of the NAACP in 1929, andwithin that role hired Thurgood Marshall to their legal staff. Marshall andWhite formulated a legal strategy that led to Marshall’s argument before theU.S. Supreme Court in the case of Brown v. Board of Education (1954).
The verdict declared segregation unconstitutional and aided in building thefoundation for the growth of the modern civil rights movement. When theseevents are retraced from Brown v. Board of Education to Marshall, toWhite, and to Du Bois and the founding of the NAACP, they point back to theAtlanta Race Riot of 1906.The shocking event thrusted Du Bois, and directedWhite into their leadership positions for the promotion for civil rights,dramatically changing human rights in the United States.
3) Why were many Americans hesitant to become involved inWorld War 1 and what changed this?The United States did not join the Allies in their war against the CentralPowers until April 6, 1917, thirty-two months after the war began. DespitePresident Woodrow Wilson’s push for Americans to remain neutral in thought anddeed, there were several factors at play that made this a difficult stance tomaintain. Economic factors, in particular, drove the U.S.
position on the warsince the Allied nations of Europe heavily depended on American imports sincethe beginning of the war and military blockades affected trade. In addition,the ethnic separations among native-born Americans and new immigrants formednational chaos as alliances were divided. German submarine warfare also madeneutrality hard to sustain because of their hostile targeting of Britishliners, which evolved to include unrestricted warfare on American freighters.It was a combination of these factors, attachedwith the so-called Zimmerman telegram in February that finally got the U.S. toget involved in the war.
The telegram, which was captured by England, was fromthe German foreign minister to the German ambassador to Mexico instructingMexico to join the war on the side of Germany if the U.S. entered the war. Inexchange, Germany promised to reclaim land previously lost to the U.
S. in theMexican-American War. Then in March, German U-boats sank three American ships. With hisback against a wall, President Wilson presented himself before Congress onApril 2 to ask Congress for a declaration of war against Germany. Four dayslater, the American were in the war that Wilson stated would “make theworld safe for democracy.”