In this essay, it will overlook the abnormal issue that is depression. This is an illness in which takes over a person’s mood, mind and body, which is inconvenient as it intervenes with an individual’s daily life and the ability to function normally. This abnormal illness also takes a toll on the people around the person who is suffering from depression. According to American psychologist Seligman (1973), he viewed depression as a ‘common cold’ of psychiatry due to the fact the diagnosis of psychology was all so frequent. Depression comes in different levels, such as; Seasonal affective disorder, Bipolar disorder, psychotic depression and postpartum depression. All these needs specific treatment in order for the individual suffering from them to recover. Depression is an illness that can sometimes be overlooked due to the symptoms, it’s very common that not all people suffering from depression will experience the same symptoms. Some of them in which include; having frequent feelings of guild, hopelessness, helplessness, pessimism, and worthlessness.
Others include feeling tired, fatigues loss of energy to do normal everyday tasks, it’s also not having the focus to concentrate or recall information, indecisiveness. Sleeping patterns becomes for example waking up in the middle of the night, oversleeping or reluctant to sleep. In addition, with depression there is no one apparent known cause. However, it has been said there is most probably a chance that its due to a number of factors such as, environmental, psychological, genetics and biochemical factors. With Depression it can affect both women and men of any age. In psychology there are many theories in which are explained differently, as with the psychodynamic perspective it takes all the theories in psychology. The psychodynamic perspective then takes an intricate focus how those theories view human functioning, particularly on what the unconsciousness and reads into the different factors and aspects of the personality.
Psychodynamic theory was most original psychoanalysis by Freud. Sigmund Freud, created psychodynamic theory, which is made up of the id which is what is accountable for our instincts and also for seeking pleaser from things. In addition to what else makes up this psychodynamic perspective is the superego, this is the personality that looks to ensuring we respect and obey rules, these rules can be by parents, teachers or society as a whole.
Furthermore, the ego which is the personality that negotiates what one of the personalities it will project and act on depending on the requirements of reality. Psychodynamic theories are of experience that occur from a young age, which helps build a character’s personality. Psychoanalysis is a type of therapy that’s focus it to try and open the desires and unconscious thoughts. Sometimes the psychodynamic theory is disregarded due to it having lack of scientific back up. Other psychologists such as Jung and Erikson had developed their own perspective of the psychodynamic theory thanks to the inspiration by Sigmund Freud.
Freud had also stressed that the human mind can link to an iceberg, he explained that because only small amounts of the mind can be seen just like half of an iceberg. The behavioral perspective is relayed on proof from science, investigation and objective methods. This approach to psychology also talks on how behaviors are taken and practiced due to the surrounding environment, this perspective also stresses on how there needs to be an observed stimulus-response for behavior to occur. The initial focus is learning and how we do this, the role of behavior is initiated by the environment around us and the inherited factors as well as the near exclusion of innate. When it comes to operant and classical conditioning, this perspective states how this is the way in which we learn new behavior. When we are born we consider our minds white canvas or a blank slate, the terminology used is ‘tabula rasa’.
With psychology and the behaviorist perspective is that it’s always in relation to behavior that can be observed ‘seen’. For that sometimes science would be involved, Watson (1931) claimed that ‘Psychology as a behavior views it is a purely objective experimental branch of natural science. Its theoretical goal is … prediction and control’. (p.
158). This perspective also doesn’t look into emotion and thinking as to why someone would behave the way they do. There are ways of observing which can be internal or external, the scientific and most effective way is to observe is externally. Very well-known Russian psychologists Ivan Pavlov developed classical conditioning, he did this by using natural reflexes of a do by conditioning it to salivate when the dog hears a bell rings. Classical conditioning is a type of conditioning that has been used during therapy as a way of treating people.
B.F Skinner studied Operant conditioning in regards to involuntary and voluntary behavior. It was thought by Skinner that an individual’s behavior can be justified by an individual rationale. Initially there are three different ways to mold a person’s behavior which is; through punishment, positive reinforcement and negative reinforcement. During the late 1800s, Dr. Sigmund Freud one of the first psychotherapists had developed the psychodynamic theory. Dr.
Freud job inclined treating individuals with mental issues through therapy that was by communicating with them. He created the idea that the mind was divided by two where the mind had an unconscious part as well and conscious part. Dr. Sigmund had a simple idea that when an individual was suffering from a mental illness it was down to the fact they there were mental tensions that where initially developed by repression.
He also stated that the mental health could be fixed by making the thing that the individual was repressing to become conscious. Comparing this to depression, an individual should speak about what they are repressing to allow that information to become conscious in order to help towards treating depression. However, sometimes with the unconscious and conscious mind they can develop a clash in one another.
Once these two clash they create repression, repression is whereby a person isn’t aware of the things that are causing them an undesirable rationale, motives or desires, it then affects the persons mind very negatively. In addition to this the Psychodynamic perspective states that an individual should try to sort the conflicts before they have a chance to occur. An example of this would be to master interpersonal relationships, open themselves to allow trust to be gained as well as affection. This would very much allow the chances of repression to decrease and allow a good mental health to thrive and develop. Once a person fails to sort out these clashes and conflicts then they are opening themselves to mental illness such as depression. The psychodynamic perspective has a number of different explanations of why an individual may develop symptoms of depression. The history of this perspective talks on how depression is believed to have been caused due to a person’s anger turned into self-hate. The perspective of psychodynamic has very much evolved over a long period of time, thus being able to develop different versions of the first theory.
In the past the Psychodynamic theories have been critiqued due to the fact of lack of empiricism which is basically not having information nor knowledge that can be backed up by scientific testing. However lately this has changed over a period of time. The behaviorist perspective didn’t look into mental illnesses until during the 1930s to 40s, which was when the psychodynamic perspective had already looked into the subject matter of mental illness. The behavioral theory believes that depression is a learned behavior and not like psychodynamic ‘to do with internal unconscious conflicts and repression’.
Instead of looking at these aspects, a behavioral psychologist would initially put their focus on the principles of theory of learning in order to understand human behavior. Peter lewinsohn (1970) stressed that a combination of things that cause depression is based on an individual’s environment and limited personal skills. Psychologist of the behavioral perspective believe that depression can be unlearned, because it is a behavior of which is unhelpful and dysfunctional. This perspective looks at how individual receive positive reinforcement will continue to carry out the behavior that is allowing them to receive positive outcomes. One that person is no longer receiving those outcomes then they will develop the behavior depression. Lewinsohn claimed that people who were depressed are individuals who don’t know ow to deal with the fact that they aren’t getting the positive reinforcement as they did before. Furthermore, depressed individuals who are very highly self-aware about their coping skills particular when they lack them are the ones who are at an increased chance of being very critical of themselves as well as becoming absent from others.
People who suffer from depression are often withdrawing themselves to things that involve other people. The behavior of taking advantage of the mental illness depression is wanting others to feel pity for them therefore they may allow the behavior to escalate. In conclusion looking at the contrast depression is seen by the behavior perspective and the psychodynamic is the fact that the behaviorist look at how depression is something in which is learned and can be unlearned. As with psychodynamic perspective its looking as how it plays with the conscious and unconscious mind.
Whilst depression is a mental state that negative affects the mind the psychodynamic perspective believes that it is caused by the way in which a person may view themselves and how the mind develops this, which can be compared with the behaviorist perspective which also sees depression as something that is developed due to the mind allowing it to.