..              SUPERVISOR’S APPROVALThis projectproposal has been submitted for examination with my approval as universitysupervisor Mr. Eli Kang’aruLecturer  Sign:………………………………….                      Date:…………………………………       ABSTRACTWiththe advent of ever evolving technology students need a proper system which isable to provide information about application dates and allow students to applyfor a bursary anywhere.

 ­This research project isaimed at developing an online system which is able to allow enumerator to keeprecords of students both in secondary and college including their parent’sdetails. The system will be able to allow students to apply for a bursaryanywhere as opposed to the current system in which student could only apply byfilling the forms and taking them to bursary offices.       Table of Contents DECLARATION AND APPROVAL.. 3 CHAPTER ONE:  INTRODUCTION.. 5 1.1Background Information.

5 1.1.1 Historical background. 5 1.1.2 Contextual background. 6 1.

1.3 Theoretical background. 6 1.1.4 Conceptual background. 6 1.2 Problem Statement 7 1.

3 Objectives. 7 1.3.1 General objectives. 7 1.3.2 Specific objectives.

7 1.3.3   Hypothesis. 8 1.

4 Project Justification. 8 1.5 Project Scope. 8 CHAPTER TWO.


.. 9 2.1 Introduction. 9 2.2. Disbursement criteria of SEBF and its effectiveness on enhancing retention and access in secondary school.

9 2.3. Challenges in the financing of Secondary and higher Education Bursary Fund. 11       CHAPTERONE:  INTRODUCTION1.1BackgroundInformation1.1.1Historical backgroundAn historical analysis ofthe patterns and trends of education financing in Kenya and other countriesreveals existence of a partnership between the state, households, andcommunities, long before the introduction of the cost-sharing policy by theGovernment.In thecost-sharing strategy, the government finances educational administration andprofessional services, while the communities, parents and sponsors, providephysical facilities, booksand supplementaryreaders, stationery and other consumables.

Constituency development funds is afund established in 2003 through the act of the parliament .the act was laterreviewed through the amendment 2007.the fund is domiciled within the ministryin charge of national economic policy and planning, currently the ministry ofdevolution and planning.1.1.2Contextual backgroundThe Ministry ofEducation, Science and Technology (MoES) a bursary scheme at secondaryschool and college level as part of, and within the auspices of the SocialDimensions of Development Programme, targeting the poor and vulnerablehouseholds. The major objective of the scheme is to enhance access to, andensure high quality secondary school education and higher education for allKenyans. The philosophy behind the scheme was to translate into reality theidea that no child who qualifies for secondary education and higher educationshould be denied access due to inability to pay school fees.

The ministry ofeducation releases bursary application forms through the Area EducationOfficers (AEOs) which are to be filled by parents and Needy students. Details requiredin the form include academic background of the student, family backgroundincluding family size, economic status (family annual income) and family type(orphan, non-orphan, single parent). Details are given on fees payment and anyoutstanding balances.  1.1.3Theoretical background The ministryemphasizes on student performance and discipline. The bursary application formhas to be signed by the chief or religious leader and the school head beforesubmission to the constituency bursary fund committee (Njeru and Orodho, 2003).

themain purpose of the fund is to enhance socio-economic development at nationallevel in order to reduce poverty by dedicating a minimum of two and a half ofannual revenue towards supporting education sector (ruodh 2003).                   1.1.

4Conceptual backgroundStudent’sbursary management system also known as e-bursary system  formerly constituencies development fundswhich enables students to to keep their details in the site’s databases uponwhich the enumerator can use as a basis for considering the needy students.This system can also enable student’s access to the application forms online aswell as the application dates. The fund is managed by the national government constituencies’development board which is a corporate body with perpetual succession andcommon seal. The body operates at national level and comprised of board ofdirectors and a secretariat   1.2Problem StatementDespite therationale for the introduction of bursaries as safety-nets in the educationsector, there are increasing concerns regarding their ability and sensitivityin cushioning the income to poor and vulnerable groups.

Major concerns are inregard to the Ministry of Education, Science and Technology bursary scheme’sweak administrative systems as evidenced by delays in communicating the bursaryawards to beneficiaries; questionable bursary eligibility criteria. Thus, morethan half of population living below the poverty line, and the rising cost ofeducation, majority of households, especially among the poor and the vulnerablegroups, are unable to access the benefits accruing from investment in thedevelopment of quality secondary and college education.1.3Objectives1.3.1General objectivesTo develop an online student’s bursary system to provide informationabout application dates and allow students to apply for bursary anywhere.1.

3.2Specificobjectivesi) To come up with systemwhich allows enumerator to keep records of students both in secondary andcollege including their parent’s details. ii) To reducedisparities and inequalities in the provision of secondary and higher educationbursary by coming up with a system which enable admin to verify, approved alleligible student and award them base on parent details submitted by enumerator.iii) To develop online system which is ableto provide information about bursary application dates and allow students toapply for bursary anywhere  as opposed tocurrent system in which student could only apply by filling the form and takingto bursary offices.iv) To design user friendly online student’s bursarymanagement system interface.

1.3.3  Hypothesisi) If the system allows enumerator to keep records, then the systemshould keep student’s record both in secondary and college including their parent’sdetails.ii) If disparities and inequalities exist, then the system should enablethe admin to verify, approve all eligible student and award them based onparents details submitted by enumerator.iii) If the system provide information about bursary application dates,then it should allow students to apply for bursary anywhere as opposed tocurrent system in which student could only apply by filling form and taking tobursary offices.iv) If the interface is well designed, then the system should be userfriendly.1.

4Project JustificationOna successful completion and implementation of this project, system will keeprecords of all students in constituency. Base on records in the database, itwill be easier to determine eligible student. System will allow eligible toapply bursary will be able to do their application online with ease. Systemwill solve Issue of delay communication through online updates. Moreover,applicant will be rest assured that no amount of online threat from hacker andother attackers can penetrate their account even when their password iscompromised. This application uses amulti-level security measure to ensure that customers’ personal details andaccount information are safe.1.5Project ScopeBursary Needs assessment system providesan interface for bursary applicant, administration and enumerator who recordsdetails about the students in the database in constituency.

Admin will be ableto verify student details based on enumerator’s data in database. Applicantsregister and log in to apply for bursary and also check information such asdate of application. Applicant is able to confirm whether there applicationwere successful or not. The system will also provide online upload ofindividual document for verification such as national identification card,letter from school and area chief. Admin on the other hand is able to viewapplicant information, update website information, allow applicant to changetheir profile and to notify online those who have qualified/ benefited frombursary.

Applicant is able to download qualification notification.       CHAPTER TWO 2.0 LITERATURE REVIEW2.1 Introduction This chaptercovers review of literature related to the study.

Literature is first given ona review on disbursement of secondary and higher education bursary fund (SHEBF)in Kenya and other countries is provided. Literature on studies oneffectiveness of bursaries on enhancing access and retention is provided. Areview of studies on challenges in the disbursement procedures of SEBF isgiven. 2.2. Disbursement criteria of SEBFand its effectiveness on enhancing retention and access in secondary school. A studyby Fedha Flora (2008) states that guidelines from Ministry of Educationstipulates that there are factors to be borne in mind by constituency bursaryfund committee when they allocate bursaries to students. The following statushas to come out clearly as the main factors to be considered during the awardof bursaries: a)     Whether the applicant was atotal orphan b)      Whether the applicant was a Needy child ofpoor parents  The studywill try to establish whether this is the case followed in Juja constituency.

Not manystudies have been conducted to find out the impact of constituency bursary fundon retention. One of the studies identified was conducted by Kirigo (2008), toassess the effectiveness of bursaries on enhancing retention in secondaryschools in Mombasa District. The study established that schools andconstituency bursary committee in Mombasa District followed the laid downcriteria and that 42% of the deserving students received bursaries, 60% whomwere female. Kirigo further established that bursary fund had no significantimpact on the retention in Mombasa District, based on the fact that 53.3% ofthose who received bursaries were sent home over three times due to inadequacyof funds set aside for bursary and unpredictability of the funds.

Ngware, Onsomu, Muthakaand Kosimbei (2006) conducted a study to examine strategies for improvingaccess to secondary education in Kenya. They concluded that persistently,low participation rates from low income households indicates that the bursaryfund has limited impact on ensuring that the beneficiaries are adequatelysupported for a full cycle. Consequently, they proposed that the governmentinitiative in decentralizing and reviewing bursary funds management toconstituency level should be closely monitored. Clear guidelines should bedeveloped to ensure efficiency and effectiveness in order to increase access tosecondary education. Further they suggest that there is no address to incomeinequalities in the society, and that a special assistance scheme andpreferential policies should be developed to target vulnerable groups such asstudents from marginalized communities, those with special Needy and orphanedand vulnerable children.In Kenya Orodho and Njeru(2003) and Mellen (2004) have carried out researches on government bursary.From the results of the studies the government bursary fund is yet to achieveits main objective of ensuring access and quality education.

These tworesearches were carried out when the bursary fund disbursement was directly underthe heads of schools and B.O.G currently it is being disbursed at constituencylevel thus the Needs for such a study as this will find out if the findingscould be the same.

2.3. Challenges in the financing ofSecondary and higher Education Bursary Fund Studies byNjeru and Orodho (2003) and Mellen 2004 have evaluated the students’ bursaryfund scheme and found out that the funds are not effective generally and arestrained with defaults. They all underscore the importance of reviewing thescheme in order to determine whether the objectives are being achievedespecially after the increase in bursary awards so far littlehas been done to seek the opinions of the beneficiaries of the bursariesregarding its effectiveness in achieving its objective of enhancing equity,retention, and access in secondary education. This gap is worthy bridging.The reviewed studies havefocused more on the government and its administrative procedures as the mainconstraints in implementation. This research intends to go further and find outif there are any other constraining factors. Based on this therefore, thisstudy will seek to investigate the effects of secondary school bursary onaccess and retention in Juja constituency.

Flora Fedha (2008) though expertssupport the decentralization of bursary, again this criteria has many problems.There have been complains that bursaries given to constituencies by thegovernment were being used for political purposes instead of assisting thepoor. Some M.

Ps picked their friends to manageconstituency bursary fund such that only their supporters benefited. Thuspoliticians, who infiltrate them with their cronies, had hijacked thecomposition of Constituency Bursary Committee. They in turn configure thedisbursement to benefit those in the politicians camp (Daily Nation 14th Feb,2004). Othercritical issues are to do with the time factor in that it takes long for thebeneficiaries to receive the money and that there are no compellinginstructions that enjoin committees to adhere to given rules. From a study byIPAR entitled education financing in Kenya secondary school bursary schemeimplementation and challenges (2003) it was clear that the bursary fundintroduction, as part of the safety nets in cushioning the poor and vulnerablewas a noble policy goal, but it has not been effective and efficient in meetingits objectives. From thestudy, the following issues were raised; The MOEST has not created a legal andconducive relationship with local communities via establishment of competentBOG and PTA to deal with school management especially financial management;MOEST lacked any monitoring system, hence some heads replaced names of needystudents with those of their choice; Structural weakness in administrationsystems as evidenced by delays in disbursement on remittance of funds to someschools, delays in communicating the awards to beneficiaries. Based on the above issue it wasrecommended that MOEST should increase the current funding levels, establishclear guidelines regarding the socio-economic categorization of those tobenefit from the bursary fund award, ensure that schools are guided on how toevolve ‘fees’ waiver mechanism” as well as income generating activities inorder to enhance access and retention to secondary education by the poor andvulnerable, ensure that the funds are released promptly and ensure that headteachers convene school bursary committee meetings to review the finalallocation and prioritize the most needy cases, as much as possible ensure thatthe funding allocated does not fall below 60% of the average and regularfinancial requirement of the applicant and make public the list of the studentswho receive the bursary funding and ensure that the total amount approved bythe parliament is made available to MOEST for spending.

This researchsought to establish whether this recommendation by MOEST has been adhered to inJuja constituency in order to ensure access and retention of students insecondary school.References i)Rogers R. pressman, “Software Engineering APractioner’s Approach”.Education management, Theory and Practice, NairobiUniversity press (1999) – By J. A. Okumbe.ii) Lawrence J.A.

, Jr. B.A. Pasternack. 2002. AppliedManagement Science, Modeling, Spreadsheet Analysis, and Communication forDecision Making, 2nd ed. Page 417, John Wiley & sons, Inc.

ii) Date C.J., AnIntroduction to Database Systems, Vol. II, Addison-Wesley, Reading,Massachusetts (1987)iv)Kroenke M.D., Database processing: Fundamentals, Design, and Implementation,8th Ed.

, Prentice Hall (2002)v)RamakrishnanR. and Gehrke J., Database Management Systems, 3rd Ed., McGraw-HillScience/Engineering/Math (2003)


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