I will talk about thecase of netherlands, how they reacted to climate change.Climate change is one ofthe main issues about environment. In the case of the Netherlands it has a moreimportant meaning because the netherlands is among the most vulnerablecountries to effects of climate change and predicted risings on sea level. Onequarter of their country is below sea level and sixty percent of populationlives in those areas, which puts their future lives directly in danger.
Thedutch have always been intertwined with environment because they already havelimited land and they learned how to live with it through their history.Because of this most of their daily lives, even today, depends on stability ofenvironment around them. A rising on sea levels could destroy thier farmlands,which they heavily depend on, and also could destroy many infrastracture systemslike sewers or underground transportation and overall effects can bedevastating. Because of these reasons, the netherlands have always been veryinterested in climate change and environmental issues which makes them seem asglobal leaders and even a model in thisarea.Before everything, weneed to look at the primary norms of dutch climate change policy which aresustainable development and economic efficiency. Sustainable development isdefined by the dutch as economic development that places equal emphasis on theeconomy and environment. Under that, firstly, they cultivated a stewardshipnorm in their role of caretaker of environment for future generations.
Secondly, the equity norm pervades dutch rhetoric and policy in the promotionof equitable economic growth for developed states. Then, they have adopted thenorm of polluter pays, arguing that whoever is responsible for gas emissionsmust also be responsible for eliminating them. Lastly, they haveinstantiatedthe precautionary principle norm saying that todays actions musthave no regrets in future.
Soo how the netherlandsconstituted climate change and how they responded to it? Sustainabledevelopment serves as the focal point for dutch policy. It demonstrates how andwhy the dutch created certain environmental policies such as climatememorandums or national environmental policy plans. However, initially theirefforts did not result in the way they were planned.
They failed to limitcarbondioxide emissions effectively despite applying their first nationalenvironmental policy plan. Their efforts to create a multilateral approach toclimate change globally also failed when they failed to come to agreement onmeasures to meet the goals of Kyoto Protocol. Therefore, they rearranged theirpolicy and changed their response to the problem. There are some dominantforces that have shaped Dutch identity on this in the context of constructivism.
Firstly, their decisionseffected by the material reality and context around them. Growing awareness todeterioration of the environment led to the first green elections in europe andthe introduction of sustainable development led to push for a great changeafter the failure of first national environmental policy. Leaders of thenetherlands have controlled the environmental activity and the governmentpromoted sustainable development in this policy-making structure.Secondly, social identityof dutch heavily effected their actions. They perceive themselves as a part ofglobal World and therefore they perceive their approach as requiring actionagainst climate change both national and international level.
For example whilethey reduce carbondioxide emissions domestically, they must also rely on otherstates to reduce their emissions as well. This is more established in theaforementioned polluter pays principle of sustainable development.Thirdly, dutch identityis profoundly connected with their interaction with environment. They definethe nature around them as something to be managed and they believe they can ovecomeproblems with knowledge and technology they have. Thus, their quality of lifeis directly threatened by climate change.
They improved the environmentalquality in the norm of stewardship and helped others in the World in the normof equity.The dutch have foundcompromise between having a developed, energy-intensive state that valueseconomic growth and having a strong relationship with the environment thatsurrounds them and improving it. They constructed a unique conception ofsustainable development. They do what it is to necessary to do to help theenvironment, while promoting their own economic well-being.
In Dutch solutionit has come to mean to creating a balance between economy and protectingenvironment.Many ideas have come toshape Dutch climate change policy. They have shifted their policies to reducedomestic and international emissions in response to failures and successes, andthe globalizing World. But they have never abandoned their promise and theirresponsibility to their identity, adopting the norm of sustainable developmentand making it uniquely dutch. From a norm-centered constructivist perspectivethe dutch take two international norms and through their society and policythey have exported their own understandings to the World