I.           
Igneous Rock

     

            This major type
of rock is formed when molten rock material, usually from Earth’s hot spots,
rises towards the surface then crystallizes and solidifies. Igneous rocks have
two types, varying on where the molten rock material solidifies.

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The following are examples of igneous rocks which are used as a
building material:

 

1)     
Granite

 

Granite is classified as intrusive igneous
rock, meaning it was formed in place when the molten rock is cooling. Granite
is buried below kilometers of sediments and other rocks which are needed in
order to ignite enough heat to melt rock.

 

 

 

 

 

 

·        
Location:

·        
Formation:

·        
Composition:

·        
Characteristics:

·        
How and where it is used in building
construction:

 

2)     
Limestone

 

·        
Location:

·        
Formation:

·        
Composition:

·        
Characteristics:

·        
How and where it is used in building
construction:

 

3)     
Limestone

 

·        
Location:

·        
Formation:

·        
Composition:

·        
Characteristics:

·        
How and where it is used in building
construction:

 

II.           
Metamorphic Rock

 

1)     
Limestone

 

·        
Location:

·        
Formation:

·        
Composition:

·        
Characteristics:

·        
How and where it is used in building
construction:

 

2)     
Limestone

 

·        
Location:

·        
Formation:

·        
Composition:

·        
Characteristics:

·        
How and where it is used in building
construction:

 

3)     
Limestone

 

·        
Location:

·        
Formation:

·        
Composition:

·        
Characteristics:

·        
How and where it is used in building
construction:

 

III.           
Sedimentary Rock

 

            This major type of rock may be described as conglomeration of
other type of rocks sediments or pieces of once-living organisms that were
formed into another rock type over time. When these rocks are exposed to
different natural processes such as weathering, deposition, erosion and the like,
it will result to their sediments breaking away from the original rock source
and be washed away and eventually settling, which over time will become lithified
which is known as sedimentary rock.

            The
following are examples of sedimentary rocks which are used as a building
material:

1)     
Limestone

 

      Generally, limestones
can be described as deposits from marine remains, but in some cases, others are
formed in lakes, rivers and on land. However, limestone formation has no
restrictions, meaning limestone can be formed through several processes. Thus,
difference in the process of formation also bring some variations in the
composition of limestone.

 

      These processes can be summarized into two:
biochemical or chemical processes that has started occurring a lot of years
ago.

 

o   Biochemical
limestones

 

            Limestones
are rich in calcium carbonate, almost 50% of a limestone’s weight is calcium
carbonate in calcite and aragonite form, and in this type of limestone, the
calcium carbonate chemical can be found locked in the remains such as fossil
shells and skeletons in marine organisms.

 

            They
were formed when waves and water current break down the remains of marine
organism’s skeletons and shells in the sea bed, and this remains mainly accumulates
then making up thick deposits of biochemical limestone with addition of carbonate
cement in between the remains or marine fragments sticking them together over
long periods of time.

 

o   Chemical
limestones

 

            In
some cases, chemical precipitation occurs in the formation process of a
limestone. Chemical precipitation occurs when the carbon dioxide in water is
removed through warming, agitation or photosynthesis thus resulting for calcium
carbonate to be precipitated then falling out to the bottom or sea bed, which
in overtime results to the formation of chemical limestones. (Precipitation is a formation process of an
insoluble solid from a given original form or solution due to several altering
of its original properties.)

 

·        
Location:

            Limestone deposits are found in form of
karsts. This terrain is characterized as “barren, rocky ground, caves,
sinkholes, underground rivers with absence of surface streams and lakes.”
Limestone pavements are produced in the absence of surface material.
Unfortunately, limestone can easily be dissolved by slightly acidic water which
is abundant in nature, making some limestone deposits have vertical and
horizontal cracks and canals. It is also said that this property of limestone
is responsible for some of the spectacular cavern systems and cave formations. Limestone
serves as the structural surrounding rocks in cave systems.

·        
Characteristics:

 

o   Has an attractive ageing process over time

o   Easy to work with

o   Prone to corrosion and chemical weathering.
Limestone can easily dissolve when exposed to acidic water

o   Vulnerability to deterioration

o   No cleavage lines are visible

o   Low in absorption

o   Smooth, uniform in structure and composition

o   High compressive and tensile strength

o   High porosity and consists of cavities

 

·        
How and
where it is used in building construction:

 

            Limestone
has been widely used in our history. Several structures that has become
landmarks and wonders all around the world has made use of limestone as one of
the primary materials such as the Great Pyramid and its associated complex in
Egypt.

 

            Today, limestone is still being widely used in
building construction making it one of the of most common building material
despite of being a relatively expensive material and being a heavy material.

 

o   It is used as an efficient aquifer for public
water supplies in Texas and all over the world because of its high porosity and
for having cavities.

o   Used in production of cement

o   Crushed limestone is used as an aggregate

o   It is also used in glass making

o   One common material used in sculptures because
it is easy to carve

o   It is added to tiles and paints as white
pigment or cheap filler.

o   Widely used in wall and floor surfaces or
finish

o   Popular addition as decorative element to rock
gardens

 

2)     
Shale

 

            Shale
is being categorized under a category of sedimentary rocks called “mudstones”
because of the minerals it is composed of and the way it is formed. One very
well known physical characteristic of shale is its fine-grain texture. Shale is
formed through the compaction of silt, silicates and muddy mixture of clay
minerals. Some shale rocks contain other minerals (such as organic matter and
mic mineral) which influences its color.

 

            The compaction and settling out of these minerals in order to form
shale is only feasible in an environment with slow moving to still waters like
lakes, swamps or deltas. Shale can also be found in continental shelves.
Because of the slow-moving water current, fossil debris can also settle out to
form shale rocks. 

 

            Shale
can be found abundant in places with gentle water and in sedimentary deposits
or basins around the world.

 

·        
Characteristics:

            Aside from shale having fine-grain texture
because of its composition, shale has two other known characteristics that
makes it unique compared to other mudstones: being laminated and fissile. This means that shale is made up of several
thin layers and that it can be hew along the laminations

            Other
shale characteristics are the following:

o   It breaks easily

o   Dull luster and smooth texture

o   The usual color of shale is gray except when
other minerals settled out in the process of shale formation that altered its
color

o   Permeability and high porosity: It has an
ability to bear and channel fluids such as water, oil or natural gas.

o   Shale is considered as one of the most
troublesome materials to use in building construction.

 

·        
How and
where it is used in building construction:

            Shale is not used in building construction
when it requires strength. However, nowadays, it is becoming popular because of
the shale gas. In terms of architectural and construction industry, the
following are its uses:

o   Used as building stone as finishes and in
curbing

o   Used to manufacture Portland cement because of
its alumina.

o   Used as construction aggregates used in
projects such as building roads

o   Used as a natural cement. Powder shale when
mixed with water and allowed to dry hardens like the modern manufactured cement

o   Raw material in making tile, brick and pottery

 

3)     
Sandstone

 

            As
the name implies, sandstone is composed of sand-size grains of rock fragments
and other minerals that has been taken away from other rocks.

 

            When
an older rock weathered and eroded, the sand grain or fragments will eventually
fill a bowl-shaped space on land or even underwater. Over time, more fragments
or sediments from other weathered rocks, minerals or organic materials adds on
top of it, thus compacting it and eventually become a sandstone. The gaps and
spaces are being filled by finer grains of rock and new mineral growth, which
cements the rock.

 

            According
to geologists, the sand-sized grains have a specific measurement which is about
1/16th of a millimeter to 2 millimeters.

 

            Sandstone
is considered to be one of the most common type of sedimentary rocks and can be
abundantly found in sedimentary basins and is being mined. However, the
environment where it Is formed and can be found has a big variable in
determining the characteristics of the sandstone. Sandstone locations may vary
from:

           

o   Terrestrial
Environments – rivers
(levees, point bars, channel sands), alluvial fans, glacial outwash, lakes or
deserts (sand dunes and ergs)

o   Marine
Environments – deltas,
beaches and shore face sands, tidal flats, turbidites and the like

 

·        
Characteristics:

 

            Sandstone
is classified as clastic sedimentary rock, meaning that its grains or
components are from other older rock which in this case, are small sand grains.

 

o   Grains are still visible in the naked eye and
are identifiable.

o   Color varies with the mineral content but is
commonly grey

o   Gritty to touch

o   Buried under successive layers of sediment

o   Impermeable

o   Fireproof and non-slippery

o   Compact and quite hard

o   Good compressive strength but low absorption
property

 

 

·        
How and
where it is used in building construction:

 

            Being
one of the most common types of sedimentary rock, it is being used in several
fields including the architectural and construction industry.

 

o   Used throughout the history, especially in
domestic construction and housewares

o   Used in constructing temples, homes and other
buildings.

o   Used as a paving material such as asphalt
concrete

o   Used as a building stone (dimension stone) and
facing stone

o   Used in countertops, decorative aggregates and
other decorations

o   Used as raw material in cement and mortar
manufacturing and aggregates in construction and road projects

o   Used in production of glass and ceramics

 

 

IV.           
References

 

 

 

Sedimentary Rocks

 

http://www.rocksandminerals4u.com/sedimentary_rock_formation.html

https://web.csulb.edu/depts/geology/facultypages/bperry/Sedimentary%20Rocks%20Tour/biochemicallimestone.htm

http://people.ku.edu/~stalder/KS-limestone.html

https://www.sciencelearn.org.nz/resources/466-limestone-origins

https://www.britannica.com/science/karst-geology

https://www.quora.com/What-is-the-characteristic-of-limestone

 

https://study.com/academy/lesson/shale-rock-formation-uses-facts.html

http://www.earthspiritedu.org/docs/tapestry/Shale1.pdf

https://www.britannica.com/science/shale

http://rocks.comparenature.com/en/shale-uses/model-19-7

 

https://study.com/academy/lesson/what-is-sandstone-formation-properties-types.html

http://rocks.comparenature.com/en/sandstone-uses/model-8-7

https://flexiblelearning.auckland.ac.nz/rocks_minerals/rocks/sandstone.html

http://imghost1.indiamart.com/data2/HB/XR/MY-764762/sandstone-properties-and-applications.pdf

 

 

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