Igneous Rock                  This major typeof rock is formed when molten rock material, usually from Earth’s hot spots,rises towards the surface then crystallizes and solidifies. Igneous rocks havetwo types, varying on where the molten rock material solidifies. The following are examples of igneous rocks which are used as abuilding material: 1)     Granite Granite is classified as intrusive igneousrock, meaning it was formed in place when the molten rock is cooling. Graniteis buried below kilometers of sediments and other rocks which are needed inorder to ignite enough heat to melt rock.       ·        Location:·        Formation:·        Composition:·        Characteristics:·        How and where it is used in buildingconstruction: 2)     Limestone ·        Location:·        Formation:·        Composition:·        Characteristics:·        How and where it is used in buildingconstruction: 3)     Limestone ·        Location:·        Formation:·        Composition:·        Characteristics:·        How and where it is used in buildingconstruction: II.

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           Metamorphic Rock 1)     Limestone ·        Location:·        Formation:·        Composition:·        Characteristics:·        How and where it is used in buildingconstruction: 2)     Limestone ·        Location:·        Formation:·        Composition:·        Characteristics:·        How and where it is used in buildingconstruction: 3)     Limestone ·        Location:·        Formation:·        Composition:·        Characteristics:·        How and where it is used in buildingconstruction: III.           Sedimentary Rock             This major type of rock may be described as conglomeration ofother type of rocks sediments or pieces of once-living organisms that wereformed into another rock type over time. When these rocks are exposed todifferent natural processes such as weathering, deposition, erosion and the like,it will result to their sediments breaking away from the original rock sourceand be washed away and eventually settling, which over time will become lithifiedwhich is known as sedimentary rock.

            Thefollowing are examples of sedimentary rocks which are used as a buildingmaterial:1)     Limestone       Generally, limestonescan be described as deposits from marine remains, but in some cases, others areformed in lakes, rivers and on land. However, limestone formation has norestrictions, meaning limestone can be formed through several processes. Thus,difference in the process of formation also bring some variations in thecomposition of limestone.       These processes can be summarized into two:biochemical or chemical processes that has started occurring a lot of yearsago. o   Biochemicallimestones              Limestonesare rich in calcium carbonate, almost 50% of a limestone’s weight is calciumcarbonate in calcite and aragonite form, and in this type of limestone, thecalcium carbonate chemical can be found locked in the remains such as fossilshells and skeletons in marine organisms.              Theywere formed when waves and water current break down the remains of marineorganism’s skeletons and shells in the sea bed, and this remains mainly accumulatesthen making up thick deposits of biochemical limestone with addition of carbonatecement in between the remains or marine fragments sticking them together overlong periods of time.

 o   Chemicallimestones              Insome cases, chemical precipitation occurs in the formation process of alimestone. Chemical precipitation occurs when the carbon dioxide in water isremoved through warming, agitation or photosynthesis thus resulting for calciumcarbonate to be precipitated then falling out to the bottom or sea bed, whichin overtime results to the formation of chemical limestones. (Precipitation is a formation process of aninsoluble solid from a given original form or solution due to several alteringof its original properties.

) ·        Location:            Limestone deposits are found in form ofkarsts. This terrain is characterized as “barren, rocky ground, caves,sinkholes, underground rivers with absence of surface streams and lakes.”Limestone pavements are produced in the absence of surface material.Unfortunately, limestone can easily be dissolved by slightly acidic water whichis abundant in nature, making some limestone deposits have vertical andhorizontal cracks and canals. It is also said that this property of limestoneis responsible for some of the spectacular cavern systems and cave formations. Limestoneserves as the structural surrounding rocks in cave systems. ·        Characteristics: o   Has an attractive ageing process over timeo   Easy to work with o   Prone to corrosion and chemical weathering.

Limestone can easily dissolve when exposed to acidic watero   Vulnerability to deteriorationo   No cleavage lines are visibleo   Low in absorptiono   Smooth, uniform in structure and compositiono   High compressive and tensile strengtho   High porosity and consists of cavities ·        How andwhere it is used in building construction:             Limestonehas been widely used in our history. Several structures that has becomelandmarks and wonders all around the world has made use of limestone as one ofthe primary materials such as the Great Pyramid and its associated complex inEgypt.             Today, limestone is still being widely used inbuilding construction making it one of the of most common building materialdespite of being a relatively expensive material and being a heavy material. o   It is used as an efficient aquifer for publicwater supplies in Texas and all over the world because of its high porosity andfor having cavities.

o   Used in production of cement o   Crushed limestone is used as an aggregate o   It is also used in glass makingo   One common material used in sculptures becauseit is easy to carveo   It is added to tiles and paints as whitepigment or cheap filler.o   Widely used in wall and floor surfaces orfinisho   Popular addition as decorative element to rockgardens 2)     Shale             Shaleis being categorized under a category of sedimentary rocks called “mudstones”because of the minerals it is composed of and the way it is formed. One verywell known physical characteristic of shale is its fine-grain texture. Shale isformed through the compaction of silt, silicates and muddy mixture of clayminerals. Some shale rocks contain other minerals (such as organic matter andmic mineral) which influences its color.             The compaction and settling out of these minerals in order to formshale is only feasible in an environment with slow moving to still waters likelakes, swamps or deltas. Shale can also be found in continental shelves.

Because of the slow-moving water current, fossil debris can also settle out toform shale rocks.               Shalecan be found abundant in places with gentle water and in sedimentary depositsor basins around the world.  ·        Characteristics:            Aside from shale having fine-grain texturebecause of its composition, shale has two other known characteristics thatmakes it unique compared to other mudstones: being laminated and fissile. This means that shale is made up of severalthin layers and that it can be hew along the laminations            Othershale characteristics are the following:o   It breaks easilyo   Dull luster and smooth textureo   The usual color of shale is gray except whenother minerals settled out in the process of shale formation that altered itscoloro   Permeability and high porosity: It has anability to bear and channel fluids such as water, oil or natural gas.o   Shale is considered as one of the mosttroublesome materials to use in building construction. ·        How andwhere it is used in building construction:            Shale is not used in building constructionwhen it requires strength. However, nowadays, it is becoming popular because ofthe shale gas.

In terms of architectural and construction industry, thefollowing are its uses:o   Used as building stone as finishes and incurbingo   Used to manufacture Portland cement because ofits alumina.o   Used as construction aggregates used inprojects such as building roadso   Used as a natural cement. Powder shale whenmixed with water and allowed to dry hardens like the modern manufactured cemento   Raw material in making tile, brick and pottery 3)     Sandstone             Asthe name implies, sandstone is composed of sand-size grains of rock fragmentsand other minerals that has been taken away from other rocks.              Whenan older rock weathered and eroded, the sand grain or fragments will eventuallyfill a bowl-shaped space on land or even underwater. Over time, more fragmentsor sediments from other weathered rocks, minerals or organic materials adds ontop of it, thus compacting it and eventually become a sandstone. The gaps andspaces are being filled by finer grains of rock and new mineral growth, whichcements the rock.              Accordingto geologists, the sand-sized grains have a specific measurement which is about1/16th of a millimeter to 2 millimeters.             Sandstoneis considered to be one of the most common type of sedimentary rocks and can beabundantly found in sedimentary basins and is being mined.

However, theenvironment where it Is formed and can be found has a big variable indetermining the characteristics of the sandstone. Sandstone locations may varyfrom:            o   TerrestrialEnvironments – rivers(levees, point bars, channel sands), alluvial fans, glacial outwash, lakes ordeserts (sand dunes and ergs)o   MarineEnvironments – deltas,beaches and shore face sands, tidal flats, turbidites and the like ·        Characteristics:             Sandstoneis classified as clastic sedimentary rock, meaning that its grains orcomponents are from other older rock which in this case, are small sand grains. o   Grains are still visible in the naked eye andare identifiable.o   Color varies with the mineral content but iscommonly greyo   Gritty to toucho   Buried under successive layers of sedimento   Impermeableo   Fireproof and non-slipperyo   Compact and quite hardo   Good compressive strength but low absorptionproperty  ·        How andwhere it is used in building construction:             Beingone of the most common types of sedimentary rock, it is being used in severalfields including the architectural and construction industry. o   Used throughout the history, especially indomestic construction and housewareso   Used in constructing temples, homes and otherbuildings.

o   Used as a paving material such as asphaltconcreteo   Used as a building stone (dimension stone) andfacing stoneo   Used in countertops, decorative aggregates andother decorationso   Used as raw material in cement and mortarmanufacturing and aggregates in construction and road projectso   Used in production of glass and ceramics  IV.           References   Sedimentary Rocks  http://www.rocksandminerals4u.com/sedimentary_rock_formation.htmlhttps://web.csulb.edu/depts/geology/facultypages/bperry/Sedimentary%20Rocks%20Tour/biochemicallimestone.htmhttp://people.ku.edu/~stalder/KS-limestone.htmlhttps://www.sciencelearn.org.nz/resources/466-limestone-originshttps://www.britannica.com/science/karst-geologyhttps://www.quora.com/What-is-the-characteristic-of-limestone https://study.com/academy/lesson/shale-rock-formation-uses-facts.htmlhttp://www.earthspiritedu.org/docs/tapestry/Shale1.pdfhttps://www.britannica.com/science/shalehttp://rocks.comparenature.com/en/shale-uses/model-19-7 https://study.com/academy/lesson/what-is-sandstone-formation-properties-types.htmlhttp://rocks.comparenature.com/en/sandstone-uses/model-8-7https://flexiblelearning.auckland.ac.nz/rocks_minerals/rocks/sandstone.htmlhttp://imghost1.indiamart.com/data2/HB/XR/MY-764762/sandstone-properties-and-applications.pdf  


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